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for, or remove gold, on, or from any land, whether public or private, without first taking and paying for a license in the form annexed.

“ 2. For the present, and pending further proofs of the extent of the gold field, the license fee has been fixed at 30s. per month, to be paid in advance; but it is to be understood that the rate is subject to future adjustment, as circumstances may render expedient.

“3. The licenses can be obtained on the spot from the Commissioner, who has been appointed by his Excellency the Governor to carry these regulations into effect, and who is authorized to receive the fee payable thereon.

“4. No person will be eligible to obtain a a license or the renewal of a license unless he shall produce a certificate of discharge from his last service, or prove to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that he is not a person improperly absent from hired service.

“5. Rules adjusting the extent and position of land to be covered by each license, and for the prevention of confusion, and the interference of one license with another, will be the subject of early regulations.

“6. With reference to lands alienated by the Crown in fee-simple, the Commissioner will not be authorized for the present to issue licenses under the regulations, to any person but the proprietors, or persons authorized by them in writing to apply for the same. “By his Excellency's command,

“ E. DEAS THOMSON.”

GOLD LICENSE.

"No.

1851. " The bearer

having paid to me the sum of one pound ten shillings on account of territorial revenue, I hereby license him to dig, search for, and remove gold on and from any such Crown land within the county of

as I shall assign to him for that purpose during the month of 185 .

“ This license must be produced whenever

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demanded by me or any other person acting under the authority of the Government.

(Signed) “A. B. Commissioner."

Mr. Hardy, police magistrate at Paramatta, was nominated “Chief Crown Land Commissioner for the gold districts,” with powers to receive the license fee, and to enrol a body of police, foot and mounted, to assist him in

preserving order, enforcing the laws, and preventing unlicensed persons from digging.

CHAPTER XVI.

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Quality of the Gold-Flight to the Diggings-Rise of

Prices, Reaction-Discovery of the Turon Diggings and Lewis Hill-Matrix Gold-Bathurst-OphirEnormous piece of Gold.

The natural dam, or bar, as it is called, just below the junction of the Lewis Ponds and Summer Hill Creek, was, at this period, the principal seat of the miners. These creeks take their rise in Frederick Valley, in Bathurst county, 153 miles from Sydney. The country around is wild and rocky, and too poor for cattle pastures. The gold here obtained (and it may be taken as a specimen of Australian gold generally) gave by the Royal Mint process of dry assay: gold, 91.100; silver, 8.333; base metal, 0.567. The gold is, therefore, of 22 carats, value £3 17s. 10d., and contains 1 dwt. 16 grs. of fine silver to the ounce, value 5 d.; making the value of Australian gold £3 18s. 4d. per ounce.

By the 26th of May, so rapidly had people collected, that it was estimated that about 1000 were already at work on the Summer Hill and Lewis Ponds Creek, and lumps (or, as they are locally termed, nuggets) were found weighing from 1 oz. to 4 lbs. each. The continued influx of the golden treasure, produced in Sydney a Californian excitement. Merchants, lawyers, and tradesmen closed their offices and shops; and clerks, mechanics, labourers, and men of all classes and conditions, threw up their situations, and leaving their families behind, started for the diggings; and whole crews deserted from the ships in the harbour. The government found it expedient, for a period, to raise the clerks' salaries 25 per per cent, and added ls. per day to the pay of

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