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tracts are occupied as sheep-walks. The towns are Ailsa, on the Krui river; and Montefiores and Dalkeith. The richest plains are Krui, Nandoura, Harrisons, and the northern portion of Wellington valley. Rivers : Goulburn, Macquarie, Cudgegong, Talbragar, Krui, and Erskine. Creeks: Wildra, Stoney, Moons, Derrinderry, Krui, Four Mile, Coolaburragundy, Teeree, Peter's, Cookabulgo, and Munmurra. Eminences : Mooa, Gobalion, Pandora's Pass, and East Bluff. Population, 1,004.
Phillip county lies to the south-east of that of Bligh, which it much resembles in its general features. It is about 53 miles in length, by 40 in breadth. The villages of Rytstone and Dabee are the chief settlements. Rivers : Cudgegong and Goulburn. Creeks: Lawson's, Wollar, Bylong, Barrigan, Moorlarben, Wilpingong, Cooyal, Widden, and Pipeclay. Eminences : Rankin's Peak, Cox's Crown, and Mount Penny. Population, 674.
Brisbain county joins the eastern extremity of Bligh, and consists of ranges of table-land,
with occasional plains and peaks. The most extensive plains are those of Gummum, Krui, and Bone. The highest peaks are Mount Tinagroo, Murulla, Tomarra, Tereil, and Oxley's Peak. Mount Wigen, known as the Burning Mountain, is in this county; the portion under combustion is 1500 feet above the sea. Towns: Murrurundi, on the river Page, Scone, St. Aubin's, Cassilis, Merriwa, Haydontown, and Invermein. Rivers : Hunter, Goulburn, Krui, Isis, Page, and Werrenul. Creeks: Dartbrook, Kingdon, Moon, Krui, Giant, Hall, Waybong, Gummum, Coulson's, and Bone. Population, 1,373.
Hunter county joins the most southern portion of Brisbain, and is separated from the sea by Northumberland county. It contains much wild mountainous country, in which gold and other minerals occur. The available tracts are occupied chiefly as cattle runs.
The principal town is Jerry's Town, 122 miles from Sydney, on the Hunter river. Rivers : Hunter, Goulburn, Colo, Wollombi, and Macdonald. Creeks: Putty, Parson's, King, Doyle, Greig, Webb's, Widdin, James, and Wollum. Eminences : Womba, Coricudgy, Nullo, and Monundilla. Population, 1,063.
Northumberland county, one of the finest in the colony, has a sea-board 61 miles in length, and extends inland to a distance of 50 miles. The uplands are fertile and picturesque ; and the valleys are famed for their richness and beauty. The Hunter river, a fine Australian water-course, affords means of internal water communication along the northern boundary of the county. In the vicinity, and on the alluvial flats of the river, there are numerous highly flourishing farms and estates, and a population of 15,200, busily occupied in pastoral, agricultural, and other colonial pursuits. Port Hunter, a commodious haven, forms the estuary of the Hunter river, near to which are the extensive coal measures worked by the Australian Agricultural Company, who possess a monopoly of the mines, and realise considerable and greatly increasing profits. Newcastle, about 80 miles
from Sydney, is the port town of the county, and the depôt from which the coal is shipped.
Maitland, a populous and highly flourishing town, 25 miles from Newcastle, on the Hunter river, at its junction with Wallis creek, is the seat of the county executive; and besides a spacious court-house, a large gaol, and several handsome churches and chapels, boasts its tobacco and soap manufacturies, tanneries, breweries, potteries, iron-foundries, and numerous substantial and well-built stores and private residences.
Much of the land in this county is highly fertile; and as the river Hunter and some of its tributaries are auriferous, it appears probable, that this sea-port district will rapidly increase in industry and wealth, especially as coal lies close to the port, and at the very doors of the manufacturers.
There are several lakes in this county. Lake Macquarie is the largest in the province, and surrounded by highly picturesque scenery. Brisbane Water, Wamberall, and Tuggerah Beach, are also extensive sheets of water. The chief rivers are the Hawkesbury, which forms the southern boundary of the county, and disembogues at Broken Bay; and the Hunter. They are extensive, but like most Australian streams, subject to droughts and floodings. Besides the towns already mentioned, there are Morphet, Singleton, St. Albans, Gosford, Hexham, and Wollombi.
Durham county lies immediately to the north of Northumberland. It is hilly, but fertile, and well watered. Patrick Plains, a fine agricultural and squatting district, includes the middle portion of this county, and extends into the adjacent counties of Hunter and Northumberland. Patterson, the county town, is situate on the river of the same name, distant 130 miles from Sydney. The other towns are Seaham, Hinton, Camberwell, Gresford, Merton, Muswellbrook, Clarencetown, and Dungog. The latter, situate on a salubrious and picturesque site, is in a highly flourishing condition. Rivers : Hunter, Patterson, Allyn, Bonchell,