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same, and so much is labour in demand, that the squatters,* and the farmers, pounce upon weavers, clerks, broken-down gentlemen, or, in fact, any persons they can get.

The aborigines, or black fellows, as the colonists call them, unlike the warlike Red Indians of America, are a poor, simple, weak-minded, harmless race; almost the very lowest in the scale of humanity. Neither are there dangerous beasts to waylay the traveller, who indeed may safely roam at will over hill and plain, and at night, wrapped in a blanket or an opossum rug, repose with the earth for a couch, and the bright starry heavens for a canopy, without fear of harm from man or beast; the only pests being insects, and occasionally a snake, but many of these are harmless, as has been shown in a preceding chapter.

The boundaries of the colony have not been

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* In Australia the term squatted” is not applied, as in America, to a poor pioneer of civilization, but to a wealthy person, who leases large tracts of land from the crown, as runs for his numerous sheep or cattle.

defined, but the more settled portions have been divided into counties and districts, which may be thus briefly enumerated.

Cumberland County, on the east side of the dividing range in the middle district, is the most densely populated portion of the province. Besides Sydney, the capital, it contains the town of Paramatta, Windsor, Wilberforce, Richmond, Liverpool, Appin, Campbeltown, Penrith, Petersham, Pitt-town, Narellan, and numerous rising villages. The principal rivers are the Hawksbury, and the Nepean. The land throughout the country is flat or undulating, and near the sea-shore the soil is poor and barren. The most conspicuous eminence is Prospect Hill, situated near the centre of the county. Population, 81,114.

Camden County adjoins that of Cumberland, and contains Illawarra, or Five Islands, a region of surpassing beauty, and extraordinary fertility, situate between the ocean and the eastern base of a ridge of trap rock, running parallel to the coast and connected with Mitta

the sea.

gong range. This lovely valley averages five miles in breadth, by about sixty in length. Its inhabitants consist chiefly of small settlers who cultivate grain, culinary vegetables, fruits, &c., for the Sydney market. Berrima, the county town of Camden, is situate on the banks of the Berrima river, eighty miles from Sydney, and on table land 2,096 feet above the level of

The climate is comparatively cool, and approximates much nearer to that of England than does the warmer regions of Sydney, and the low country towards the coast. The other towns are Kiama, Picton, Wilton, Camden and Murrimba. The county is well watered. Among the numerous streams are the rivers Nepean, Wingecarribee, Berrima, Nattai, Avon, Kangaroo, Bargo, Cataract, and Minumurra; and the creeks Myrtle, Wollondoola, Yarringal, Broughton, Wattle, Werriberri, Black Bob, Broger's, and Mullet. Several of the eminences, the chief of which are Bonnum Peak, Keera, Bonnum, Kembla, Jellorr, Bullio, Pianeng, and Nundialla, command magnificent and extensive prospects. Lakes : those of Illawarra and Camden are small but beautiful sheets of water, abounding with enchanting scenery.

Argyle County contains large undulating tracts which, though pleasing and park-like in appearance, are generally too poor in soil for agricultural purposes. The herbage, however, is highly nutritive, and the soil, being light and dry, is well suited for cattle pastures. It is watered by tributaries of the Hawksbury and Shoalhaven rivers, whose never-failing supplies fertilize the plains. The county is rich in gold and minerals. Goulburn, the county town, is distant one hundred and twenty miles from Sydney, and situate on the banks of the Wallondilly, in the centre of an agricultural and pastoral district, called Goulburn Plains. Lake Bathurst, an expansive sheet of water in this county, about one hundred and thirty-five miles southwest of Sydney, is from three to five miles in diameter, and reported to be the haunt of a creature resembling a seal, called “Devil-devil,” by the aborigines, who deem it an evil spirit.


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The other towns in Argyle are Marulan and Bungonia. Rivers : Wollondilly, Shovelhaven, Guinecor, Cookbundoon. Creeks: Curran, Lerida, Mulwarree Ponds, Kerrowang, Uringalla, Myrtle, Woorondooronbidge, Crisps, Bangalore, and Windellama. Eminences : Towrang, Mounts Macalister, Marulan, Hobbs,

, Wayto, and Fitton. Population, 5,465.

St. Vincent's County extends to the southward of Camden, and contains much wild, mountainous country, especially to the northward, which affords a rich field for mineralogical research, gold and minerals being abundant. To the southward there are some tracts where the soil is rich, and suited for either cultivation or pasture. It is well watered, and its mari. time boundary is highly picturesque.

Towns: Braidwood, Broulee, Pianjare, Huskisson, Farnham, Marlow, Ulladulla, and Narriga. Rivers : Crookhaven, Moruya, Mongarloo, Clyde, Deuca, Macleay, and Shovelhaven. Creeks: Congola, Endrick, Yerringmong, Wandagandria, Pigeon-house, Jervis, Groobyer,


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