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In the sixth year at the pruning season, each of the branches will be furnished with three shoots, each of which must be pruned down to the lowermost branch of the last season's growth, which will form the bearing wood for the current year, and each should be shortened to four or five buds. In

every succeeding season the same rules are to be observed, viz.: to get the greatest possible quantity of bearing wood upon the smallest quantity of old wood. This is the method of pruning dwarf standard vines in general practice in Australia, although other modes of pruning and training the vine are adopted, and it is perhaps of little moment which is pursued, as a good crop of fruit depends much more upon the soil and general good management, than any particular method of pruning or training

The best varieties of the grape for raisins, are those producing large fleshy berries, as the Muscat of Alexandria, the Panse, or the Crystal. The cuttings should be planted as directed for wine grapes, but at a distance of 6 feet between the rows, and 10 feet apart in the

rows.

At the pruning season the vines are all to be headed down to two buds. As the growth of the vine will be very vigorous, it must be trained on an espalier-rail, which should be erected as follows :-procure posts 3 inches square, and 7 feet long, the bottom ends being charred, or coated over with coal-tar to prevent the wood underground from decaying, and the white ants from attacking it. The posts should stand 5 feet apart, the plant occupying the centre between them. They must be sunk into the ground to the depth of 2 feet, and the earth around firmly rammed, when, to secure them in their proper position, a plate of 2 by 3 quartering, should be nailed on their top ends. The rail should now have two or more good coats of paint, which will render it doubly durable. To this, one shoot is to be trained perpendicularly, until it reaches a few inches above the top of the rail, where it is to be stopped. At the pruning in the third season, the upright shoots are to be cut off even with the top rail of the espalier, and eight branches, four on each side, are to be trained along the rails, until they reach the prescribed limits, and a foot more, where they are to be stopped. In the fourth season at the pruning, the vine will be furnished with eight horizontal branches, or four on each side. On the right side of the perpendicular stem, the first and third branches are to be cut out, leaving the bud situated nearest the upright or mother branch. On the left side, the second and fourth branches are to be similarly pruned. The vine will now have four branches, two on each side, all of which are to be shortened to 4 feet 6 inches long, and all laterals and tendrils cut off. In the growing season, all the shoots from the four bearing branches are to be trained and secured to laths placed from upright to upright, and stopped three eyes above the uppermost bunch of fruit. At the same time, a shoot will be advancing from each of the four branches which were cut out at the pruning season, which must be secured to the rail, and trained to their full limits. In the fifth season, those branches that have borne fruit, are to be cut into the shoot closest to the upright stem, and that shoot trimmed to one eye, while the four shoots of the preceding summer's growth, are to be retained as bearers for the ensuing season, and so forth, cutting out and leaving every other branch alternately.

The best varieties of table grapes grown in Australia, are, among the coloured—the Black Hamburg, the Grisly, the Black Frontignacs, the Maroquine, and the Chaline. For white the Tokay, the White Frontignac, La Folle, and the White Sweetwater.

Most of these succeed best if grown on an espalier-rail, and cultivated as directed for raisin-grapes. Some, however, as La Folle, may be trained the same as with wine grapes, i. e., as dwarf standards.

CHAPTER XI.

New South Wales—First settlement at Sydney—The

City-Australian Alps—Dearth of Labourers—The Counties, Mountains, and Rivers.

New South Wales, the seat of the eastern Australian gold-fields, and the oldest of the Australian colonies, occupies the eastern portion of the island-continent of Australia. As before observed, it was discovered and named by the justly celebrated Captain Cook, who spoke of it so favourably, that the British Legislature, then at a loss for a place to which criminals might be transported, determined to establish on its coast a penal settlement. Governor Phillip, with a

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