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foot, and afterwards be filled up level with the surface of the ground. Proceed with the others in the same manner until all are planted. After this, those cuttings planted in the vineyard where they are to remain, and not yet pruned, should be subjected to that operation in the same manner as directed for the plants taken out of the nursery bed, care being taken to remove the soil about them to the depth of about 6 inches, so as to get at the surface roots, which must be cut away, as it is a point of great importance in the early stage of the culture of the vine to get a quantity of deeplyseated roots, and every effort of the cultivator should be used to effect this. After pruning, stakes in sufficient number for all the vines should be procured of from 5 feet 6 inches, to 6 feet long, and in substance, averaging an inch and a half. They may be split square, of stringy bark, and sharpened at one end ; then, with a light crowbar, make holes of just sufficient width to admit the stake, and rather less than the depth it is intended to be driven,
which should be done by means of a wooden mallet, finishing one row before the other is commenced with. This done, the ground should be dug over about 6 inches deep, in order to admit the winter rains, taking care in doing so not to injure the plants. The labours of the vineyard for the first year are now complete, and no more care will be necessary during the winter than keeping the ground free from weeds.
In the beginning of the second season, and when the buds have pushed two or three inches, the plants must all be gone carefully over, and the superfluous shoots rubbed off, leaving only the strongest and best placed to form the future main stem of the plant. When the shoots have attained about 8 inches in length, they should be fastened to the stakes, for which purpose a dry day should be chosen, as when the shoots are wet they are very brittle; nevertheless, great care is necessary, as they are apt to snap if handled roughly. The shoots will now grow rapidly, and as they advance, they must be carefully tied
up until they attain the height of the stakes and a few inches longer, where they must be stopped, and all laterals and claspers cut away. In shortening the laterals, or small shoots, produced from the base of the leafstalk, the two lowermost buds must be left, as they have evidently very important functions to perform, by drawing off the superabundant sap from the bud always situated close to its base, and returning it in a more elaborated form, developing the latent principle in the bud designed in the following season to produce a shoot, leaves, and fruit. This rule should be always closely adhered to, not only in this, but in every succeeding season. Nothing further is required to be done except shortening all laterals when they get long and straggling, and keeping the ground free from weeds.
In the third season, and immediately after the vines have shed their leaves, they should be again pruned, by shortening the
down to the three lowermost buds, and cutting off all laterals and claspers ; after which, those stakes which may be out of place, should be adjusted, and the stems fastened to them in an upright form. Attention to this in the first place, will insure a straight and upright stem at the period when the vine has attained its most perfect form. In the third season, if all has gone well, the growth of the vine will be very vigorous, and it will probably bear two or three bunches of grapes. Two shoots are to be retained this season, which, when of sufficient length, are to be fastened to the stakes, and the superfluous shoots rubbed off. The same routine of culture is to be observed this season as directed for the two first, and for every succeeding one
In the fourth year, at the pruning season, the strongest and most upright shoots are to be retained, to form the main stem of the plant, and which must be cut over at 15 inches from the surface from the ground, and all laterals, caspers, and other side shoots cut off. This season the vine should assume its permanent form, and bear a good quantity of fruit, for which purpose four or five shoots must be allowed to grow. In the fifth season, three of these shoots are to be retained, radiating at regular distances from the main stem, each of which must be pruned to three buds, cutting off all else. The stakes may now be dispensed with, as each plant will be strong enough to support itself.
In the growing season, three shoots are to be allowed to grow from each of the branches left at the pruning season, each of which may be expected to show two bunches of fruit, and are to be topped when they grow long and straggling. In summer-dressing the growing shoots and leaves of the season should be so disposed, as to afford the greatest possible amount of shade to the fruit from the direct rays of the sun, as grapes enjoying a screen of leaves not only ripen earlier than those exposed to the sun, but the berries will thereby be larger, and have a fine powdery bloom upon them--a certain sign of health.