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should be formed, to do which, having first decided on their width, and direction, you thus proceed :

-Mark off, with a measuring rod, the exact spot in which to insert four pegs, so that two lines stretched on the pegs exactly indicate where the edging is to be placed on each side of the walk; drive the pegs well into the ground, stretch the lines on them tightly, and insert small pegs at a distance of about 9 feet all along both the lines, to guide the necessary operation in forming the edging, which usually consists of either stones, bricks, or battens. If

If you use stones well bed them; if bricks set them on edge one course wide, well bedded; batten edging is laid down the same as wood edging in England, namely, stout pieces of quartering 18 inches long are pointed and driven into the ground, to which the battens are nailed on the side next the walk. When the edging is all laid down, excavate the soil out of the walk to the depth of 8 inches, then fill up

the hollow so formed with small stones, brick-bats, or the like, to within 2 inches of the intended level of the walk, on this spread some coarse gravel, beating it down with a heavy wood rammer, and cover the whole with a coat of the finest procurable binding gravel, smoothed even with a rake, and rounded off so that the middle is one or two inches higher than the sides, and the edging about two inches above the sides of the walk. Afterwards tread and beat it down, or if possible roll it a few times to harden the surface.

You next commence planting and sowing; and as many of these operations are performed the same in the Australian colonies as in Britain, it would be needless to recapitulate them here, as the emigrant who is not a professed gardener, can, for a trifle, procure a work on British horticulture, which he should take with him.

I have already noticed where the colonial mode of cultivation of fruits and vegetables usually grown in Britain, differs from the methods practised in England, and the characteristics, and

and the

VOL. I.

M

mode of cultivation, of such garden produce as succeeds in the colonies, but cannot be raised in the colder climate of the British Isles. These are at the present time successfully cultivated in the open air to the southward of the parallel of 33° 52' S. lat. (Sydney). The times stated for sowing and other operations apply especially to gardens just within the hills, in the vicinity of Melbourne ; in other districts operations commence a few days earlier, or later, according to circumstances. As a rule for every degree of latitude north of Melbourne, all other circumstances being alike, commence sowing four days earlier than at Melbourne; and for

and for every degree of latitude south, four days later, and calculate every 500 feet of elevation as a degree of latitude.

Digging, hoeing, weeding, sowing, transplanting, sowing seeds, and other ordinary garden operations, are performed much the same as in Britain ; but to insure success the following instructions must be attended to : 1st. The ground must be manured to keep it in '

good heart” at least once in a year, and with manure so thoroughly decomposed as to appear like black earth, otherwise the plants will be burnt up on the first approach of hot weather. Manure should be used more sparingly than in Britain ; apply it to the ground in autumn just before the rain sets in, so that it may become during the wet cold season well blended with the soil. The manure heap should be so placed that it can be easily saturated with water, as it must be frequently well watered in summer to hasten its decomposition. 2nd. Tender young plants must be protected by matting, bark, or other materials, from the sun's rays in summer, and cold cutting winds in winter. 3rd. The ground between recently removed plants, and young trees, should be covered in hot weather with a tolerable quantity of straw, litter, or what is better, large flattish stones, to lessen evaporation, and keep the earth cool. 4th. Never water trees or plants during hot sunshine, as every leaf so watered becomes scalded, and many trees have been killed outright by water being applied to the base of their main stems when fully exposed to the rays of the

sun.

The almond, a native of northern Africa, and other similar climes, is grown in Australia principally as stocks for peaches, nectarines, and apricots. It is usually propagated by seed. The shell-almond sold in the shops grows freely ; plant it in May, in drills 3 inches below the surface, 6 inches apart, and 12 inches between each drill.

In the following May take the plants up, shorten their tap-roots, and replant them in rows, with a space of 2 feet between each plant, and 3 feet between each row.

When they are planted, head them down close to the ground; let but one shoot spring from each plant, and fasten it to a stake to insure its growing upright. At midsummer they will be fit for budding, and in the following

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