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valuable product, so especially useful in fattening swine, is scarcely ever to be met with.

Rye, hops, and tobacco, are cultivated in the colony to a small extent; they succeed well, and before the lapse of many years will probably be largely grown.

The operations in the dairy are throughout the colony performed in a primeval, make-shift manner; indeed, many of the proprietors are ignorant of the most approved European methods of making butter and cheese ; and much that is indifferent in quality is brought to market and readily sold, as the demand usually exceeds the supply. Samples of butter are, however, occasionally produced that equal in quality that of Britain ; and although most of the cheese resembles in taste and appearance the better quality of those lately so extensively imported to this country from America, there is every reason to believe, that, when the cattle are as well tended, and the manipulations are performed as carefully and judiciously as in this country, that both the colonial butter and cheese will be of unequalled excellence. Butter is in the greatest demand in winter: it must be kept in a cool cellar in summer, or the hot weather turns it to oil. Cheese is in request all the year

round. Few farmers feed their cows otherwise than by turning them out on the run.

At the large dairies the cows are milked only once a day, early in the morning ; after which the calves are allowed to accompany them on the run, where they remain in charge of a boy until evening, when they are all driven home: the calves housed, and the cows sent back to the run, there to remain until mustered on the following morning at milking-time. Under this system the cows give only about half the quantity of milk obtained from the well-tended cows of Britain ; this the farmers deem a matter of little import, as most of them have extensive runs, the rental of which is a mere nominal sum, so that a deficiency in the supply of milk can always be made up at no increase of outlay, beyond the cost of a few more cows. It appears probable that the climate influences the quantity of milk, for many of the small farmers and gardeners well feed and house their cows, and milk them regularly and carefully twice a day, morning and evening, and yet the milk, although excellent in quality, is invariably deficient in quantity.

Fowls, ducks, pigeons, geese, guinea-fowls, and turkeys, are plentiful throughout the rural districts and towns. They require little care or feeding, multiply much faster than in this country, and are so generally kept, that go where you will the crowing of cocks, the cooing of pigeons, and the quacking of ducks assail

the ear.

CHAPTER VII.

The agricultural population-Progress to independence

—The German settlers—Economy of the farmsThe farm-houses--Life at the farms.

Although many of the farmers are capitalists, by far the great number are individuals who arrived in the colony with nothing but a pair of sinewy arms and a stout heart; and who by industry, frugality, and persevering energy, have attained their present state of affluence. Their colonial life, although not fraught with hardship or want, is that of incessant daily toil: husband, wife, and children, little and big, all work right earnestly, early and late ; but, unlike the husbandmen in Europe, they labour from choice, and not necessity; they have become comparatively wealthy in a short time, and their success spurs them on to redoubled exertion. Indeed, the disposition of most of the labouring agriculturists leads them to as soon

as possible acquire a small farm or garden of their own, as they dislike above all things depending on others for their daily bread, and to this may be attributed the extent of cultivation and cheapness of grain in South Australia. It was, as before stated, the rise and rapid increase of this class of small cultivators, that brought the price of grain down to 28. 6d. per bushel in 1844 ; they being able to produce it at a much lower rate than the large landowners who rely solely on hired labour. For instance, a married man with a family, who possesses a team of bullocks, a dray, a plough, and a harrow, and about 40 acres of land, 2 or 3 cows and pigs, and a little poultry, is already independent; and will probably soon be rich, as his income will far exceed his outgoings. In about a month

VOL. I.

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