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Hunt, the painter; Alfred Tennyson, poet-laureate ; Sir Roderick Murchison, the geologist; and many others.

The Comma () is used-(1) To mark off co-ordinate words and phrases in any sentences when such words and phrases are not connected by conjunctions. Ex. The child, the youth, the man, alike look onward.

(2) To mark off the various members of the clauses of complex or compound sentences (the semicolon being used to separate the clauses). Ex. We, who are so short-sighted, can see this ; how then can they help seeing?

(3) To mark off the adjuncts in simple sentences, when these are numerous or long. Ex. 'He, being a good scholar, and moreover, intelligent and obliging, was after a short time promoted.'

(4) To separate nouns or phrases in apposition. Ex. “Catherine, Queen of England, came into the court.'

(5) To mark off nouns of address. Ex. My lords, I am astonished at the turn affairs have taken.'

(6) Commas may be used to separate the clauses of short complex or compound sentences, unless used to separate the parts forming the clauses. Ex. “While ye are yet speaking, I will hear.'

(7) Commas are also used to mark ellipses and quotations ; as, “To err is human; to forgive, divine.' "That is true,' said he.

The members of short clauses and simple sentences should not be separated by punctuation.

Quotation Marks (* ') must be used to mark quotations. Ex. • Vanity of vanities,' saith the preacher.

The Dash (-) is used to indicate a sudden break in the composition. Ex. 'It may be so—but what a contrast to what has been !

The Parenthesis () is used to enclose clauses thrown in between the parts of other sentences, with which they are in no grammatical relationship. Ex. “Thus we may see (if we have power to see) how the world goes.'

The Apostrophe () marks the possessive case, or the elision of a letter. Ex. E'er, 'gan, for ever, began.

The Hyphen (-) connects the parts of compound words; as, foot-board.'

The Diæresis (•* ) is placed over the second of two vowels, to show that both are to be sounded; as, aërial.

FIGURES. A figure is a legitimate deviation from the ordinary form of words or sentences.

Figures of Etymology are deviations from the ordinary form of words; as, e'er for ever. The chief figures of Etymology are:

Aphæresis, the omission of the initial letter, etc.; as, 'gainst for against, 'neath for beneath.

Syncope, the omission of some of the middle letters; as, o'er for over.

Apocope, the omission of some of the final letters ; as, tho' for though.

Prosthesis, the adding a syllable at the beginning; as, adown, besmear.

Paragoge, or adding a final syllable; as, deary, dolly, for dear

Figures of Syntax are allowable deviations from the ordinary construction of sentences. The chief figures of Syntax are :

Ellipsis, the omission of some word or words necessary to complete the sense. Ex. “You must read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest this.'

Pleonasm, or the use of redundant words. Ex. “Hear, all ye people.' Come here, you boys !

Hyperbaton, or the intentional transposition of words in a sentence. Ex. 'She the latch would lift, and in his face look wistfully.'

Enallage, or the substitution of one part of speech for another. ‘Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring.'

Figures of Rhetoric are deviations from the ordinary prose methods of speaking or writing. The chief are:

Simile, a likeness or comparison, introduced by like, as, or, so. Ex. “As the hart panteth after the water-brooks.'

Metaphor, a likeness or comparison understood, and not introduced by like, as, or, so. Ex. 'Our God is a consuming fire.' "The child is but a fragile blossom.'

Personification, ascribing intelligence to inanimate objects for the sake of vividness. Ex. “The lake sleeps placidly among its encircling hills.'

Climax, the gradual heightening of the interest by successive steps. Ex. “The Israelites are defeated ; thy two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, are slain ; the ark of God is taken.'

EXERCISES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

"SOMETIME this world was so steadfast and stable

That man's word was held obligation ;
And now it is so false and deceivable
That word and work .
Be nothing one ; for turned up so down
Is all this world, through meed and wilfulness,
That all is lost for lack of steadfastness.'

CHAUCER (Ballad sent to King Richard).

(a) Give the meaning of the above passage in simple English of the present day.

(6) Explain all the old - fashioned words that occur in the passage..

(c) Point out any words in the above which show that the English language as Chaucer used it was not pure Saxon.

(d) Parse the words in italics. (e) Analyze the above, and point out the adverbial sentences.

(a) There was a time when men acted upon fixed principles,

so that they considered themselves bound to do according to what they said ; but the world has altered for the worse. A man's word can no longer be trusted; and this evil is so general, that profession and practice now have no connection. There is, indeed, a complete moral revolution, brought about by each man seeking after gain, and acting according to his own will, instead of his sense of right. Men have fallen so far from truth that distrust has taken the place of faith, and the world is in confusion through want of respect for right.

(6) Sometime, equal to 'once upon a time;' and still, though rarely, used in this sense, as in the phrase, “Sir John Lawrence, late chairman of the London School Board, and sometime Governor-General of India.'

Stable, derived, through the Norman-French, from the Latin sto, to stand, from which root we have also the cognate words

91

establish, stable, unstable, steady. Its meaning is firm of purpose. Example, ‘Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel.'

Deceivable, able to deceive ; 'deceitful' has supplanted it. - Be, used in this sense, has been supplanted by “are,' this form being used only for the subjunctive mood. Other forms of the Saxon verb beon, to be, have become obsolete. Milton says, “If thou beest he ;' and Shakespeare,

And winking Mary buds begin to ope their golden eyes,

With every thing that pretty bin, my lady sweet, arise.' Be nothing one, equal to “be not one.' 'Nothing' is used to give intensity to the meaning. This is seen in the phrase 'nothing loth,' which means not at all loth.

Adam, with such counsel nothing swayed.'-MILTON. Up-so-down, a contraction of upside down’; so, topsy-turvy,' meaning top-side turf-way, or towards the turf.

Lack means need. Example, ‘He that gathered little had no lack.' 'What lack I yet?'

Meed, gain or reward; here used in the sense, greed of gain.

(c) Stable, derived from L. sto, to stand.

Obligation, from L. ligo, to bind; from which come the cognate words ligature, ligament, religion.

Deceivable, from the L. de (which gives intensity to the meaning), and capere, to take; from which come captive and capture. The Latin decapere became changed in the French to decer'oir ; which, introduced into English by the Norman-French, was the origin of deceive.' The same change of form is seen in the words receipt' and 'receive;' 'deception' and reception' retain the older form. (d) That-conjunction. beverb, substan., irr., pres., indef. tense, ind. mood, 3d

pers., pl. num., agreeing with word and work.' nothing (equal to not)-adverb of negation, attributive to

the verb 'be. one-pronoun, 3d pers., sing. num. (rendered sing. by the

negative), neut. gen., nom. case, after 'be nothing.' down (=downwards)-adverb of direction, qual. “turned.' world—noun, com., 3d pers., sing. num., neut gen., nom. case

to 'is turned.' lost-verb, particip. compl., irr., forming with 'is' a verb of

the passive voice.

(e) A.

Principal clause. 1. Sometime

adverb, adjun. of time to 3 2. this world

subject 3. was steadfast and stable predicate 4. So

adverbial adjun. of deg. to 3

B.

Subordinate adverbial clause of consequence to A. 1. That

connective particle 2. man's word

subject 3. was held

predicate 4. (as) obligation

adverbial adjun. of manner to 3

Principal clause to D, co-ordinate with A. 1. And

connecting particle 2. now

adverb, adjun. of time to 4 3. it

subject 4. is false and deceivable predicate, compound 5. So

adverb, adjun, of deg. to 4

Subordinate adverbial clause of consequence to C. 1. That

connecting particle 2. word and work

subject, compound 3. be nothing one

predicate

E.

Principal clause to F. 1. For

connecting particle 2. up so down

adverb, adjun. of manner to 3 3. is turned

predicate 4. all this world

subject 5. through meed and wilfulness

adverbial adjunct. of means to 3

F.

Subordinate adverbial clause of consequence to E 1. That

connecting particle 2, all

subject 3. is lost

predicate 4. for lack

adverbial adjunct. of means 'to 3 5. of steadfastness

adjective, adjunct. to 4. Clauses A, B, C, D, E, and F form a complex sentence.

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