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When the adjective clause follows the conjunction 'as,' the relative is generally omitted. For example : We read such books as will instruct us (meaning as which instruct us '); They are such children as may be seen every day.

EXERCISE. Point out the adjective clauses in the following sentences, stating which word they qualify :

Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just;
And he but naked, though locked up in steel,
Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted.

He who reigns
Monarch in heaven, till then as one secure
Sat on his throne.

Our better part remains
To work, in close design, by fraud or guile,
What force effected not.
The man that hath no music in his soul,
Nor is not moved by concord of sweet sounds,
Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils.

We are such stuff
As dreams are made of.
I remember, I remember
The house where I was born;
The little window where the sun

Came peeping in at morn.
For nought so vile that on the earth doth live,
But to the earth some special good doth give.

These exactions,
Whereof my sov'reign would have note, they are
Most pestilent to the hearing.
See then the quiver broken and decayed
In which are kept our arrows.
What he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath won.
He knew the time when linnets build.
The man we celebrate must find a tomb,
And we that worship him ignoble graves.

The Adverbial Clause.

An adverbial clause is a collection of words containing subject and predicate, and performing the office of an adverb in a complex sentence. As an adverbial clause is in all cases subordinate, the sentence in which it occurs must of necessity be complex.

Adverbial clauses are expansions of the simple adverb or adverbial phrase.

Thus, the adverb of manner, in the simple sentence, he fought bravely,' is expanded into the clause, as a brave man fights,' in the complex sentence, ‘he fought as a brave man fights;' the adverbial phrase, 'go in the morning,' is expounded into the adverbial clause of time in the sentence, 'go when the morning shineth.'

Adverbial clauses are altogether of the nature of simple adverbs in the office they perform ; for the adverbial clause qualifies verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs, as does the simple adverb or the adverbial phrase. The adverbial clause qualifies

A verb; as, They try to think as others think.

An adjective; as, He was brave as a lion (is brave). You are welcome, as flowers in spring (are welcome).

An adverb; as, The message was sent as quickly as it was possible to send it.

The verb, adjective, or adverb to which an adverbial clause is attached, may form any part of either a principal or a subordinate clause in a complex sentence.

The adverbial clause may be attached

To the subject, when the latter is an infinite verb or a verbal noun ; as, To act as he has done shows a brave spirit.

To the object; as, They refused to act as their comrades had done.

To the predicate; as, They declined the offer soon after it was made.

To an adjunct; as, He, excited beyond endurance when he heard the charge, refused to hear more.

Adverbial clauses may express conditions of time, place, manner, cause, purpose, condition, concession, or degree.

Time; as, When the Philistines saw that their champion was defeated, they fled.

Place; as, Sir John Moore died after he had made a masterly retreat.

Manner; as, As the tree falls, so must it lie.

Cause; as, Alexander wept because there were no more worlds to conquer. I must go, for I have promised to do so.

Purpose ; as, We rose early, that we might see the sun rise. They worked early and late, in order that they might finish their undertaking.

Condition ; as, Should this occur again, we must oppose it. If the day be fine, we shall have a good view.

Concession; as, Though he was very poor, he possessed a noble spirit.

Degree; as, It was calm as the summer sea (is calm). Riches bring happiness only as they are properly applied.

Many co-ordinate clauses are introduced by adverbial particles or conjunctions. These must be distinguished from adverbial clauses.

The following are examples of such clauses :-We have seen this ourselves, therefore we must believe it. The stranger smiled, then they recognised him. He saw the danger, thereupon he called for help.

Such clauses may be distinguished from those which are adverbial and subordinate by noticing whether the adverb can be moved without altering the sense. In the first of the above examples the adverb therefore 'can be placed after the auxiliary verb 'must,' or at the end of the sentence. In the second example, the adverb 'then’ can be placed before the predicate ‘recognised,' or after the object “him.' In the third example, the adverb 'thereupon’ can be placed before the predicate "called,' or at the end of the sentence. Such adverbs are adverbial adjuncts in the clauses in which they occur. The adverbial particle introducing an adverbial clause is immoveable. Thus in the sentence, “The Queen reads a speech when she opens Parliament,' the adverb 'when' cannot be moved without destroying the sense; and the clause when she opens Parliament' is adverbial.

EXERCISE.

Point out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences, and state whether they express conditions of time, place, manner, cause, purpose, condition, concession, or degree :

• Still when she slept, he kept both watch and ward;
And when she waked, he waited diligent.'

·Soft as the dew from heaven descends,
His gentle accents fell.'

‘But as it is resolved into its elements, it takes all at once a new, and livelier, and disembarrassed form.'

“No sooner did he suspect the destination of Solyman's vast armaments, than he despatched messengers to all the Christian courts' (the last clause is the principal).

* And, for the harbours are not safe and good,

This land would have remained a solitude.'

• William the Conqueror had the Domesday Book compiled so that he might the more readily tax the people.'

'But the more he oppressed them, the more they multiplied and grew.'

They wish to go where their fellow-workers have gone.
• Thus from afar each dim-discoverd scene
More pleasing seems than all the past has been.'

And now the glee
Of the loud hill shakes with its mountain mirth,

As if they did rejoice o'er a young earthquake's birth.' “Though hand join in hand, the wicked shall not go unpunished.'

• Should a broad stream with golden sands

Through all his meadows roll,
He's but a wretch, with all his lands,

Who wears a narrow soul.'

Such, then, the reverence to a guest,
That fellest foe might join the feast.'

FORMS OF ANALYSIS. The following form is known as the tabular; it has many drawbacks, the chief being that in some of the columns the writing and analysis are cramped for want of space, while in others space is wasted ; and that ruled lines are required, when at examinations no rulers are allowed :

[blocks in formation]

fill'st

the sky

Triumphal arch that fill'st the sky Subord. adject. That

to arch
When storms prepare to part Subord. adver. Storms

(time)
I ask not proud philosophy to tell me Principal I

[blocks in formation]

What thou art.

Subord. noun Thou

object.

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