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commenced, as we entered the little churchyard which surrounded the church ; or one principal and several subordinate clauses, as, The bells rang out a peal, that threatened to crack the steeple, as the prince came in sight.

EXERCISE Distinguish between the principal and subordinate clauses in the following sentences :

The word paper is derived from papyrus, a kind of rush which grows on the Nile banks.

The rocks you find there are granite.

Carboniferous, or coal-bearing rocks, extend, as we have described, from the coast of Northumberland under the North Sea.

The architectural works of ancient Egypt which remain fill us with wonder as we gaze on them.

The climate of the west coast of Scotland is tempered by the breezes which come across the Atlantic Ocean.

Gas, which was first used for lighting at the beginning of this century, may possibly be superseded by the electric light before many years have passed away.

The electric light, which is now used in some public buildings, gives a cold, white light, like that of the moon.

The Louvre is a palace in Paris, which for some time has been used as a national picture gallery.

Napoleon I. was compelled, after his defeat, to return to their respective owners the works of art he had carried off after his various wars.

. But when the sun his beacon red
Had kindled on Ben Voirlich's head,
The deep-mouthed bloodhounds' heavy bay
Resounded up the rocky way.'
•When sorrow sleepeth, wake it not.'
•We are such stuff as dreams are made of.'
• And 'tis my faith, that ev'ry flower
Enjoys the air it breathes.'

• When the fight becomes a chase,
He wins the day who wins the race.'

Compound Sentences. A compound sentence contains two or more independent propositions, each capable of forming a simple sentence and of expressing a complete thought.

Each proposition in a compound sentence is contained in a separate clause.

The clauses of a compound sentence are co-ordinate with each other, that is, of equal rank or importance.

A compound sentence does not contain subordinate clauses.

In the sentence, ‘Brandy is made from wine, and is useful medicinally,' we have two propositions quite independent of each other. The first is, that brandy is made from wine; this forms one of the clauses of the compound sentence. It can be separated from the rest of the sentence and used alone, when it would form a simple sentence. It is co-ordinate with the clause following it. The second proposition is, that brandy is useful medicinally, the subject brandy being understood. This statement also forms a clause of the compound sentence; it can be used alone, and when so used forms a simple sentence and expresses a complete thought.

Thus, while some of the clauses of a complex sentence may be principal to others in the sentence, some co-ordinate and some subordinate, the clauses of a compound sentence can only stand in co-ordinate relationship to each other.

The clauses of a compound sentence are connected by certain conjunctions, called from their office co-ordinative.

Co-ordinative conjunctions are used to connect the co-ordinate clauses of a complex or compound sentence.

The clauses of a compound sentence may be in copulative or disjunctive co-ordination in relation to each other.

Certain conjunctions are used to connect copulative clauses, and others to connect disjunctive clauses.

Copulative co-ordinate clauses are those which are united in sense and in meaning; the statements they contain correspond in meaning. Thus, Napoleon crossed the Alps with a large army, and invaded Italy.' Here the two clauses are closely related in meaning, for they both express progress in the same direction; but in the sentence, ‘Napoleon advanced into Russia in 1812, but was repulsed, and retreated,' we have, in the first clause, progress, and in the second and third, propositions expressing something in direct opposition to that expressed in the first.

In the compound sentence, “They would not work, neither would they allow others to work,' the clauses are connected both in sense and in meaning, for the statements made express action going on in the same direction, both tending to no work being done ; the clauses therefore are in copulative co-ordination with regard to each other. But if we say, 'They would not work, but they compelled their servants to work,' the two assertions are opposite in meaning, or in disjunctive co-ordination, and only a disjunctive conjunction can properly connect them.

Copulative co-ordinate clauses are united to form compound sentences by the copulative conjunctions and,' also,' 'further,' ‘likewise,'moreover, neither,''nor'; and by the conjunctional phrases, as well as,''not only,' with its correlative but,' and not merely,' with its correlative 'but.'

Co-ordinate clauses are in some cases connected by the adverbs 'then,' when,' 'whereupon.' The conjunction and' is most commonly used to connect clauses which correspond both in sense and meaning, as the conjunction 'but' is used to connect clauses of opposite meaning or in disjunctive coordination.

Examples.—He lived for them, and he worked for them.
They clap their hands, they also sing.

(Note.—The conjunction also is not placed between the clauses, but follows the subject of the second clause.)

He was warned of his danger; further, he was besought to leave his perilous position.

She painted occasionally; she likewise wrote sonnets.
I saw him; moreover, I spoke to him.

He would not listen to the advice of his friends, neither would he make himself independent of them.

The great fire of London was believed to be the work of Papists, nor did this belief die out until quite recently.

Alfred kept the laws as well as enforced them.

Not only did Egbert learn the art of war at the court of Charlemagne, but he gained experience in governing large numbers.

Not merely did the Romans introduce many of the arts of civilisation into Britain, but they also changed the physical aspect of the country by clearing and draining it

I saw the danger, then I ran to get help.

We were walking through the wood when my companion remarked on the beauty of the evening.

They were silent for a long time, whereupon I remarked that no one seemed willing to second the proposal.

Such clauses as the last three are often mistaken for subordinate adverbial clauses. In order to distinguish them from those, it is best to try whether a copulative conjunction can be inserted without altering the sense; thus, 'I saw the danger, and then I ran to get help. "We were walking through the wood, and then my companion remarked upon the beauty of the evening. They were silent for a long time, and then I remarked that no one seemed willing to second the proposal.'

We cannot use the copulative conjunction in this way, in such cases as the following, these being subordinate adverbial clauses :

-'He ran away when he saw what had happened.' 'I ran to get help when I saw the danger.

In a compound sentence such as, ‘Not only did they break the law themselves, but they compelled others to break it,' we have an idiomatic form of expression. The two assertions correspond in meaning; they both assert that the law was broken, and are therefore in copulative co-ordination, though joined by the disjunctive particle or conjunction "but. "But,' in this case, must be used to correspond with its correlative phrase 'not only.

The phrase 'not merely' takes 'but' in the same way. For example, 'He not merely gave his advice, but saw that his advice was carried out.'

Clauses in disjunctive co-ordination are sometimes connected by the copulative particle and.' Thus: “The boy stood still, and the girl ran.' "The one rose, and the other fell.' In the majority of such cases, the opposition or contrast in meaning would be more strongly shown by the use of the disjunctive 'but.'


Principal and Subordinate Clauses. Complex sentences are composed of principal and subordinate clauses.

The clauses of compound sentences can only be co-ordinate in relation to each other, that is, of equal rank or importance.

The principal clause in a complex sentence is that on which all the subordinate clauses depend — it contains the main assertion of the sentence.

Any of the subordinate clauses of a complex sentence may be omitted without materially altering the sense or meaning ; the omission of the principal clause would destroy the meaning altogether. Thus, from the complex sentence,

• While I have power to wield my sword,

I'll fight with heart and hand, we may take away the subordinate clause,

While I have power to wield my sword,' and the sense of the chief statement is only very slightly limited. If, however, we take away the principal clause,

• I'll fight with heart and hand,' the sense of the subordinate clause is quite lost.

A subordinate clause, therefore, though it contains subject and predicate, is capable of expressing a complete thought only while it remains joined to its principal clause.

The principal clause of a complex sentence, stripped of its subordinate clauses, would form a simple sentence.

No subordinate clause, when separated from its principal clause, can stand as a simple sentence.

Subordinate clauses are of three kinds : noun, adjective, and adverbial. Such clauses are of the nature of the part of speech from which they are named. Thus, a noun clause is the expansion of a noun, or of a noun phrase, into a clause; an adjective clause is the expansion of an adjective, or an adjective phrase, and so on. Thus, the adjective 'honest' in the sentence, • Honest men are trusted,' can be expanded into the adjective clause, “Men who are honest;' and the adverb 'honestly' in the same way can be expanded into an adverbial clause ; thus, 'He dealt honestly,' 'He dealt as an honest man deals.'

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