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rather than to any part of it; but the predicate being the main part of the sentence, they seem to belong most especially to it
In addition to the distinctions of Time, Place, Manner, Cause, Purpose, Degree, Limitation, and Emphasis, Adverbial Adjuncts may express Condition and Concession in regard to the whole assertion.
Adjuncts of Condition are generally phrases introduced by . if.'
Examples :-If in town—I shall probably see you. If still under the same regulations—they will decline.
Adjuncts of Concession are generally introduced by though.'
Examples :—Though poor-he was honest. Though very much grieved—they forgave it.
The Adverbial Adjunct has, in every case, the force of a simple adverb ; and as the adverb may qualify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, so the adverbial adjunct (though generally attached to the predicate) may qualify any part of the sentence that is verbal, adjectival, or adverbial in character.
For example :-(a) “To judge wisely is a great gift.' Here the adverbial adjunct wisely qualifies the subject, because that subject is a verb.
(6) Faring sumptuously every day does not conduce to health.' Here the two adjuncts sumptuously' and every day' qualify the subject 'faring,' which is verbal in character.
(c) 'The art of giving gracefully is somewhat rare.' Here the adverbial adjunct 'gracefully' is attached to an adjective adjunct (the phrase of giving'), the said adjective adjunct being verbal in character.
EXERCISE Point out the Adverbial Adjuncts in the following sentences, and state whether they express relation of Time, Place, Manner, Cause, Purpose, Degree, or Emphasis.
Merrily, merrily, rang the bells,
The bells of St. Michael's tower.' "I saw then in my dream, so far as this valley reached, there was on the right hand a very deep ditch; that ditch it is into which the blind have led the blind in all ages, and have both miserably perished.'
• And ever and anon he beat
The doubling drum with furious beat.'
· The women sang Between the rougher voices of the men Like linnets in the pauses of the wind.' “There, twice a day, the Severn fills;
The salt sea-water passes by,
And hushes half the babbling Wye,
"Silent cataracts !
Your courtesy has erred, he said.'
Than when we soar.'
A happy time
All shod with steel,
'How pleasant, as the yellowing sun declines,
SENTENCES. A sentence is a collection of words expressing a statement, wish, question, or command
A statement, as, Dean Swift wrote satires; a wish, as, May you prosper; a question, as, Who wrote Gulliver's Travels ? a command, as, Bring the books carefully.
A sentence may also be defined as a combination of words containing a proposition
A proposition is the setting forth in words of a statement, wish, question, or command.
The term proposition is derived from the Latin pro, forth, and positus, placed.
The term sentence is derived from the Latin sentio, I think, and is applied to a collection of words expressing a statement, wish, question, or command, because such a collection of words expresses a thought.
A sentence is therefore capable of bearing a third definition, namely, a combination of words expressing a thought.
Sentences are of three kinds,-simple, complex, and compound.
The Simple Sentence, A simple sentence is a statement, wish, question, or command, expressed by means of one verb, or by the logical copula and an attribute.
By one verb, as, The trees grow.
By the logical copula and an attribute, as, The trees are growing. In the latter example the substantive verb 'are' is the logical copula, the word 'growing' is the attribute, and describes the state or condition of the trees.
[The word copula means a uniting or coupling. The logical copula is the substantive verb when it unites an attribute to the word representing the thing to which it is attributed. Example The field is green. Here 'green' is the attribute, 'field'the name of that to which the attribute of greenness belongs, and the attribute is united to field by the logical copula ‘is.']
A simple sentence in its barest form consists of two words only, one being the subject, the other the predicate, as, Rain falls.
But when the predicate is a transitive verb, a third element is necessary, namely, the object, as, Rivers form lakes. The subject and predicate are necessary elements of all sentences. Subject, predicate, and object are necessary elements of a sentence when the predicate consists of a transitive verb.
A simple sentence is capable of expansion in each of its elements, but so long as it only contains the predicate it remains a simple sentence. Thus we may expand the sentence, Flowers perfume the air, into, Many sweet flowers often perfumed the summer air ; in which case each of the three essential elements of the sentence is extended.
In this case the extensions are single words, but we may use phrases to extend each part of a simple sentence; and so long as we do not introduce another finite verb, the sentence remains simple, thus: Flowers of the loveliest hues, throughout the year, perfumed the soft air of that sunny clime. Many bright flowers perfumed, throughout the year, the soft and balmy air of that enjoyable clime. • Participles and infinitive verbs even may be used to extend the elements of a simple sentence; neither of these being finite, the sentence remains simple. Thus, Flowers placed everywhere to please the eye, constantly perfumed the enervating air of that garden of delights. In this case the participle placed,' which is a form of the verb 'to place,' and the infinitive verb 'to please,' are used to expand the meaning of the subject; but as neither of them are finite verbs, the sentence remains simple, the only finite verb being perfumed,' which forms the predicate.
So the simple sentence, The boy saw a sword, may be expanded, by means of participles and infinitive verbs, into, The terrified boy saw displayed on the wall, to frighten him into submission, a glistening sword of polished steel. The only finite verb in this sentence is 'saw'; the sentence is therefore simple.
A finite verb is one the meaning of which is confined, for the time being, to the subject of the sentence in which it occurs. Infinite verbs, or those of the infinitive mood, are those the meaning of which is unconfined to any subject. Thus, when we use the infinitive verb “to see,' we do not assert that any person or thing does the act of seeing, nor do we ask if any particular person performs the act of seeing, nor do we command any particular person to perform it. The form to see'is unconfined or infinite.
A simple sentence may be extended into a complex sentence by expanding the words or phrases which qualify its parts into clauses. Thus, A clear rivulet ran through the vale, may be expanded into, A rivulet, that was clear as crystal, ran through the valley which we travelled through ; or again, A clear rivulet, which flowed from a neighbouring hill, ran at that time along the valley through which we travelled.
Analyzing these complex sentences, we find a collection of words containing a finite verb attached to the subject rivulet.' We ask what rivulet? And the reply is, A rivulet that was clear as crystal, a rivulet which flowed from a neighbouring hill. In the first, we have the finite verb 'was clear' confined or limited to the subject 'that'; in the second case, we have the finite verb 'flowed' limited to the subject 'which.' We have thus three finite verbs in the sentence, which is therefore no longer simple, and we sa of these sentences that they are each made up of three clauses.
Let us now observe the relationship of these clauses to each other.
We set out with the simple sentence, A clear rivulet ran through the vale. This clause standing alone expresses a complete thought; it does not actually need the help of other clauses. If we take the second clause, That (or which) was clear as crystal, and use it without the first, it expresses no sense. It is quite dependent on the word 'rivulet' in the first clause; it cannot take the independent position which the first clause can do, and because dependent on this first clause, is described as a subordinate clause to it; while, on the other hand, the first clause is said to be a principal clause to the clause depending on it.
Again, if we take the clause, Through which we travelled, we find that it expresses no sense when used alone; it is dependent on the word 'vale’ in the principal clause; it is therefore said to be a subordinate clause to that principal clause.
The Complex Sentence. A sentence containing principal and subordinate clauses is a complex sentence. Every complex sentence must contain at least two clauses, the principal and the subordinate ; but a complex sentence may also consist of several principal and several subordinate clauses, as, The bells ceased ringing, and the service