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'Imperial Cæsar dead and turned to clay,
May stop a hole to keep the wind away.'
But thou, most awful form!
Risest from forth thy silent sea of pines.'
"Three fishers went sailing out into the west.'
Brightest and best of the sons of the morning,
Dawn on our darkness and lend us thine aid.'
“The sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea.'
“He who runs may read.'
*It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.'
'He jests at scars, who never felt a wound.'
“Thou glorious mirror ! where the Almighty's form

Glasses itself in tempests.'
"Smile, and we smile, the lords of many lands;
Frown, and we smile, the lords of our own hands.'
An eagle, towering in her pride of place,

Was by a mousing owl hawked at, and killed.'
Napoleon III., Emperor of the French, was defeated by the
Germans at the battle of Sedan, 1870.

Unwounded from the dreadful close,

But breathless all, Fitz-James arose.'
Having taken leave of her friends, she departed.
Coming across the meadows, I saw a lovely spectacle.

They, little thinking they were so near the edge, walked on calmly.

The king, deeming it advisable to conciliate the Commons, gave up the point.

• Breathes there a man with soul so dead,
Who never to himself hath said,

This is my own, my native land?'
"She lived unknown, and few could know

When Lucy ceased to be. He that, being often reproved, hardeneth his neck, shall suddenly be destroyed.

The great parliamentary reform bill was passed by Earl Grey's Ministry, in 1832.

Gibraltar, the gate of the Mediterranean, was captured by Sir George Rooke, in the reign of Queen Anne.

EXERCISE. Point out the adjuncts of the object in the following sentences, stating of what part of speech each consists, and whether it is adjectival or adverbial : I venerate the man whose heart is warm. *Flow on, bright rivulet! to the sea

Thy tribute waves deliver.'
'In all places, then, and in all seasons,

Flowers expand their light and soul-like wings.'
''Twas an angel visited the green earth,

And took those flowers away.'
'I heard the trailing garments of the night

Sweep through her marble halls.' 'It blesseth him that gives and him that takes.' “That same prayer should teach us all to render the deeds of mercy.'

• I loved the brimming wave that swam

Through quiet meadows round the mill'
“But all the northern downs revealed, far off,

A surface dappled o'er with shadows.'
“The highest mounted mind, he said,
Still sees the sacred morning spread,

The silent summit overhead.'
* And forth into the fields I went,
And Nature's living motion lent

The pulse of hope to discontent.'
‘Should a broad stream with golden sands

Through all his meadows roll,
He's but a wretch, with all his lands,

Who wears a narrow soul.'
'I dare do all that may become a man.'
They dislike reading newly published works.

He refused to aid this promising undertaking.
We saw the snowdrop, herald of the spring.

I remember, I remember
The house where I was born.'

Adjuncts of the predicate are adverbial in their character; for as the predicate is verbal, that which qualifies it must be adverbial. Should the predicate consist of a substantive verb, and a noun or pronoun, the adjunct of the predicate may be adjectival, qualifying only a part of the predicate ; thus, He became a soldier of fortune, in which case the adjunct of fortune' is adjectival, and qualifies soldier. So in the sentence, That was the man standing there. "Standing' is an adjectival adjunct to man, which forms part of the predicate.

As a rule, however, adjuncts of the predicate are adverbial.

An adverbial adjunct is a word, phrase, or clause used to extend the meaning of the predicate, or of some verb, adjective, or adverb, in a clause or sentence.

Adverbial adjuncts express distinctions of time, place, manner, cause, purpose, degree, limitation, or emphasis in regard to the part of the clause or sentence to which they are attached.

Time; as, We never saw his equal.
Place; as, He sat upon a rock.
Manner; as, We fared sumptuously.

Cause; as, They died of exhaustion (meaning, because of exhaustion).

Purpose; as, We eat to live.

Degree; as, They were very hungry. We were driven to despair.

Limitation; as, We gave presents to each child.

Emphasis ; as, I indeed thought this impossible. He verily expected to see the result.

An adverbial adjunct may be a simple adverb; as, They walk quickly. We saw him there.

An adverbial phrase; as, He relented at the last moment. An adverbial clause ; as, I shall leave when the news comes.

A prepositional phrase; as, They were sitting in the casement.

Several adverbs or adverbial phrases; as, In truth, they read very well yesterday. They verily won their position by perseverance.

Adjuncts of Time may always be distinguished from the rest of the sentence in which they occur, by asking :

(1) When, or to what time, does the action, state, or condition expressed by the verb refer?

(2) How long, or over what time, does it extend ?

(3) How often does it recur? (This may be expressed as an exact number of times, or indefinitely.) :

Examples :The Adjunct of Time will answer the question :

When The Danes attacked the English coast–in the reign of Egbert-after Egbert had conquered the kingdoms of the Heptarchy-when he expected peace.

How long. The Danes attacked the English coast-from 787 to 1017-for many years—during the time of the Saxon kings—from Egbert to Ethelred II.- from 787 till they placed a Danish king on the throne.

How often. The Danes attacked the English coast-frequently — often – continually - every summer — whenever the Saxons had a weak king.

Adjuncts of Place may be distinguished from the rest of the sentence in which they occur by asking, with regard to the action, state, or condition expressed by the verb:

(1) In or at what place?
(2) To what place?
(3) From what place?

Examples :-In or at what place. Napoleon was defeated-in the Spanish Peninsula-at Acre. He marched-over the Alps.

To what place. The Armada was driven-to the coast of Scotland-northward—towards the Northern Season the rocky coasts of Britain. They sailed-for Britain-in 1588.

From what place. The Saxons came—from the mouths of the Elbe and the Weser-from Jutland. The Normans originally came—from Scandinavia. They sailed - from Normandy to England_from their home in France—from the coast of France.

Adjuncts of Manner may be distinguished from the rest of the sentence in which they occur by their answering the questions :

(1) How? (2) By what means ? (3) With what accompaniments ? Examples:-How. The Saxon king fought-nobly-desperately -in despair-in hope of success. His forces were-fearfullydefeated. He was-sadly—mutilated.

By what means. William deceived Harold—by forcing him to make a certain promise. William obtained the promise—by treachery. He gained his end-by steady perseverance-through integrity and uprightness. The message came-by telegraphby the overland mail-through a friend. He sealed it—with wax.

With what accompaniments. He came—with a light-to seal the letter. Henry V. invaded France—with thirty thousand men. The army landed—with all their accoutrements—with great hope of success—without opposition.

Adjuncts of Cause may be distinguished from the rest of the sentence by their answering the question—Why?

Examples:–He did this from a good motive. William compiled Domesday Book-from a wish to tax the people readilyin order to tax the people—for the purpose of raising taxes.

Adjuncts of Purpose answer the question—To what end or purpose ?

Examples :-Henry Tudor landed in England, ostensibly—to regain his paternal domain. Henry III. tried to abolish liveried retainers—that he might restrain the power of the barons. In order to gain money-he taxed the people heavily.

Adjuncts of Degree answer, in regard to the predicate, the questions—How much? or To what extent?

Examples-Charles I. was-very-arbitrary. The river wasslightly-brackish after the high tide. I was driven—to desperation—in my fright. James II. governed-somewhat-unwisely.

Adjuncts of Limitation confine or limit the meaning of the action, state, or condition expressed by the predicate. Thus, in the sentence, 'He gave a book to me,' the action of giving is limited by the adjunct 'to me.' Again, in the sentence, They taught her drawing,'the act of teaching drawing is limited to 'her,' and the meaning is that drawing was taught to her.

Adjuncts of Emphasis are used to strengthen the assertion expressed by the verb. They may consist of single words or of phrases.

Examples :-1-verily—thought I was right. In truth–I cannot tell. He did it because-forsooth—he was not satisfied. In very truth-I never saw them. Indeed-you do not know.

Adjuncts of Emphasis attach themselves to the whole sentence

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