« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
The sentence, We thought him an honest man, seems to afford an example of a double object. The meaning is, We thought him to be honest. We cannot disassociate ‘him and honesty,' and the object is the phrase, ‘him an honest man.' It has already been shown that the object may be an infinitive verb.
In such sentences as, We saw the boat capsize, I heard you go, the infinitive verb alone does not form the object, neither does the word following the predicate. The first does not mean only that we saw the boat, but that we saw the boat in a certain state or condition—the state of capsizing ; so, I heard you in a state of going. The object of the first sentence is, the boat to capsize,' and of the second, 'you to go.' These infinitive verbs qualify the words they follow in the same manner as participles.
The sentences, I wish the child to read, We recommend you to go, afford examples of the infinitive as the direct object. The latter means, We recommend going to you ; the former, I wish reading of the child.
Among the idiomatic forms of speech which require special explanation, are such phrases as, The king presented him with a sword. To understand this, we must know the meaning of the terms ‘presented and presents.' To present means to go or place before. (For example, The soldiers presented arms.) A present is that which we place before a person for acceptance. In the queen's presence, means before the queen. The king presented him with a sword, means that the king, with a sword as an accompaniment, presented or went before him; and we understand that the accompaniment is for the acceptance of the person whom the king stood or went before. 'Him' is the object in such a sentence; but the word 'presented' does not mean that the king gave him, but that he came before him with a sword ; which sword, we understand, was to be a present, or something placed before him for acceptance.
The passive voice of a verb can take a direct object after it, as in the following sentences : I was taught swimming. They were taught to write. We were asked a question. He was told to go. We were promised a treat. He was offered a situation. She was paid sixpence.
Examples of various forms of the object :
The master made him a proficient in the art. Him-factitive object, meaning of him' (an adverbial adjunct of material).
My sister gave you a pair of slippers. You-dative object, meaning to you' (an adverbial adjunct of limitation to the predicate).
The citizens elected him president. Him-factitive object, 'elected'having the same force as 'made,' and 'president' being the direct object.
They crowned her queen of the revels. Her-factitive object; queen—direct object, the verb 'crowned' here having the force of 'made.'
We dub thee knight. Thee—factitive object, 'dub'having the force of elect' or make,' and 'knight' being the direct object.
He left his son all his personal property. Son dative object.
We deemed him a clever man. Here the phrase, 'him a clever man,' is the object, the meaning being, We deemed him to be a clever man.
He is worthy of death. Death-genitive object. (Phrase 'of death’adverbial adjunct of limitation, limiting the assertion ‘he is worthy').
I wish you to read. You—dative object; to read-direct object. Meaning, ‘I wish reading to you' (“to you, adverbial adjunct of limitation to predicate 'wish').
I wish you health and long life. You—dative object; health and long life—direct objects.
We thought to catch the distant strain. To catch-direct object; the distant strain-object of the infinitive verb 'to catch.
We presented them each with a shilling. Them and each— direct objects; presented,' meaning going before; with a shilling, accompanying circumstance to 'we.'
Definitions.—The direct object is a noun, or its equivalent in the objective case, governed by a transitive verb.
Exceptions. Some passive verbs (as, We were taught music), which take direct objects.
The indirect object is a noun, or its equivalent, governed in the objective case by a preposition, and apparently forming an object to the predicate.
Exceptions. Nouns or their equivalents following the verb to make or its equivalents. And the verbs, to think, to appear, or their equivalents.
Adjuncts are extensions of the subject, of the predicate, of the object, or of some other adjunct; they are attached to the various parts of a clause or sentence to enlarge their meaning.
An adjunct may be an extension-
An adjunct of the subject may be an adjective; as, The white sails caught the gentle breeze.
A noun in apposition; as, The ship Eurydice foundered.
A noun in the possessive case; as, Her Majesty's ship Eurydice foundered.
A nominative absolute phrase; as, Her Majesty's ship Eurydice, being caught in a squall, foundered.
A participle; as, The sailing vessel foundered.
A prepositional phrase; as, The Eurydice, a ship of the line, foundered.
A clause; as, The Eurydice, a ship which had weathered many a storm, foundered.
All such adjuncts, because they are attached to nouns or pronouns, are adjectives in the office they perform, and may be described as adjective adjuncts.
An adjective adjunct is a word, phrase, or clause joined to some noun or pronoun in a sentence to extend its meaning, after the manner of an adjective.
From the examples given above, it will be seen that adjective adjuncts are not necessarily adjectives. They are described as adjective adjuncts because they perform the work of adjectives. In the sentence, Her Majesty's ship Eurydice foundered, the adjective adjuncts to the subject ship,' are the noun 'Eurydice' and the possessive noun Majesty.' In the sentence, Her ship foundered, the adjective adjunct is the pronoun 'her'; and in the sentence, Running streams are musical, the adjective adjunct is the participle running.' Adjuncts of the subject are not in all cases adjectival.
When the subject consists of an infinitive verb, or of a participle, which is a form of the verb, the adjunct may be an adverb, an adverbial phrase, or an adverbial clause. Examples—Coming here is not pleasant. Rising at dawn is sometimes difficult. Speaking when one is exhausted is not desirable. To speak distinctly is an accomplishment. To write on that paper is impossible. To go at present seems unadvisable.
In these examples, the subjects.coming,' rising,' speaking,' and 'to speak,''to write,' 'to go,' take adverbial adjuncts by virtue of their verbal character, for as adverbs qualify verbs, subjects that are verbal take adjuncts which are adverbial. In the sentence, Coming here is not pleasant, the adverb 'here' forms an adverbial adjunct to the subject 'coming. In the sentence, Rising at dawn is sometimes difficult, the subject ‘rising' is extended by the adverbial adjunct at dawn'; and the clause,
when one is exhausted,' is an adverbial extension to the subject 'speaking.' So in the remaining sentences, distinctly,' 'on that paper,' and 'at present,' are adverbial adjuncts to the subjects 'to speak,' 'to write,' and 'to go,' respectively.
Verbal subjects, as infinitive verbs or participles, may take adjective as well as adverbial adjuncts, by reason of their office as nouns in a sentence. Thus : Early rising conduces to cheerfulness. His coming was unlooked for. Plain speaking is essential. In these three examples, the words early,''his,' and 'plain,' are adjective adjuncts to the verbal subjects, ‘rising,' coming,' and speaking,' respectively.
An adjective adjunct may always be distinguished by its answering the question Which ? or What ? in regard to the word it extends. Example—The way to fame is long ; in which case 'to fame' extends the subject way. If we ask, What way is long? the answer is the phrase 'to faine.' So in the example, The search for the culprit has failed; the question, What search? is answered by the adjective adjunct, "for the culprit.'
The object of a clause or sentence consists of the same kinds of words and phrases as may form the subject; adjuncts to the object, therefore, are of the same nature as adjuncts to the subject. Thus, the adjunct or extension of the object may be an adjective; as, The breeze caught the white sails.
Peter the Hermit.
A noun in the possessive case; as, The wrongs of the Christian pilgrims roused Peter's anger.
A pronoun; as, The girl has learnt her lesson.
From the above examples it will be seen that adjuncts of the object may consist of single words, of phrases, and of sentences.
Note. — The nominative absolute phrase cannot form an adjunct to the object.
The above examples of extensions of the object are adjectival adjuncts. The object, when it consists of an infinitive verb or a participle, takes adverbial adjuncts or extensions. Thus: I dislike going to-morrow. They refused to listen to the speech. I deny asking to go.
EXERCISE. Point out the adjuncts of the subject in the following sentences, stating of what parts of speech each consists, and whether it is adjectival or adverbial :
The cartoons of Raphael belong to the English nation.
‘Blow, blow, thou winter wind.'
For the poor craven bridegroom said never a word.'
But whispering tongues can poison truth.' • A chieftain, to the Highlands bound,
Cried, “ Boatman, do not tarry.”' *Her satin snood, her silken plaid,
Her golden brooch, such birth betrayed.' • It is better to dwell in the corner of a house-top, than with a brawling woman in a wide house.' Sweet are the uses of adversity. * And this our life, exempt from public haunt,
Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks.'