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cate. It may be used with the copula to form part of the predicate.
Adverbs can only form parts of predicates with the logical copula or adjuncts. Examples—We were there. I came directly. It is done perfectly.
EXERCISE. State in what relationship the nouns, pronouns, and adjectives stand in the following sentences :
Chimneys were invented in the reign of King John.
Thomas à Becket defied Henry II.
Napoleon was banished to St. Helena after the battle of Waterloo.
"The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea.'
William Pitt denounced the measures taken against the American colonists.
The beautiful in nature or art elevates the soul.
The subject of the sentence is the word or phrase which represents that of which we think and speak; thus in the sentence, “Moraine-heaps are heaps of sand and gravel left by ancient glaciers,' the word moraine-heaps represents the thing of which we think, and of which we assert or speak; so in the sentence, ‘Boadicea resisted the Roman invaders of Britain,' the word Boadicea represents the person of whom we think and assert. We shall readily see which is the subject of each sentence by putting to ourselves the question, Whom or what are we speaking of? The word that answers the question who or what, is the subject; thus:
Our broad nets have swept the mere. What have swept the mere ? Our broad nets (subject).—To delay is dangerous. What is dangerous? To delay (subject).-Singing is a pleasant task. What is a pleasant task? Singing (subject).
The subject of a sentence may be-
A sentence; as, “God save the Queen' resounded on every side.
Point out the subjects in the following sentences :
Come hither, child. There came to the town an aged man. Whence come ye? Said John, 'It is our wedding-day Quoth Mistress Gilpin, “That's well said.' Come ye, come ye, to the green, green wood. Ringing the bells was his great delight. To know this is important. The wise are honoured. He, being dead, yet speaketh. See, said he, what I have discovered. His pity gave ere charity began. Righteousness exalteth a nation. To be or not to be, that is the question. Speaking long exhausts the voice. The meek shall inherit the earth. Come to me, O ye children. Then said he, I told you of this long ago. May God bless you,' was his reply. 'Down with the tyrant !' resounded on all sides. 'Deal honestly,' was his maxim. Long live the King !' was heard along the lines. "Ich Dien? (I serve) is the motto of the Princes of Wales. How sleep the brave
The Enlargement of the Subject. (a) The subject being a noun or its equivalent, may be enlarged by any of the means used to enlarge or modify a noun.
By an adjective ; as, Brave men are esteemed.
By a noun in apposition; as, David's son, Solomon, succeeded him.
By a noun in the possessive case; as, The king's prerogative was exercised.
By a possessive pronoun; as, His child was present.
By a participial phrase; as, A dog gazing into a stream saw his shadow in the water.
(6) The subject may also be enlarged by several of these adjuncts at once, thus :
Our good Queen Victoria reigns in peace. England's illustrious poets are buried at Westminster. Strict perseverance in duty will bring its due reward. A clever working partner in his business is what he needs. Enlargements or Modifications of the Subject are called
Adjuncts. They are not essential to the complete expression of a simple thought, yet they enlarge or modify the meaning of sentences in which they are used. In some cases the meaning would he very obscure without them. For example, "The sense of hunger is painful.' Here the meaning would be exceedingly vague without the adjunct (of hunger'). Some senses are not painful, but pleasant; the adjunct (of hunger ') distinguishes which sense, and thus enlarges the statement. Ambition, well directed, does good. Here the modification (well directed') limits the statement, for ambition does not in all cases do good.
Point out the adjuncts to the subject in the following sentences, and state to which of the six classes of enlargements each belongs :
Few men attain that perfection. Many good men refuse to believe this. Men of honour and integrity believe it. That beautiful singing-bird is dead. The wise and provident habit of making preparation for time of adversity is to be encouraged. Socrates, the Greek philosopher, was put to death by poison. Rubens masterpiece, “The Descent from the Cross,' is in Antwerp Cathedral. David Livingstone, the brave and renowned
explorer of Africa, is buried in Westminster Abbey. An intelligent child passing at that moment was struck with admiration, And by him sported on the green his little grandchild Wilhelmine. Hold,' was the reply of the robber. 'I came, I saw, I conquered,' was Cæsar's account of his victory. Never despair,' was their watchword. They, living in the district, have opportunities of judging for themselves. . The thirst for gain has ruined many. The great temple of Diana was at Ephesus. The love of home and country is laudable. The path of success is by the highway of industry. To love the things of this world is dangerous. Reading the thoughts of good men is edifying. The words of the wise are pure words.
When the subject is an infinite verb, and that verb is transitive, it must be enlarged by taking its object after it. Thus: To do good is to be happy. To understand that implies great intelligence. To make peace is a divine command.
The intransitive infinitive used as the subject may be extended by an adverb or adverbial phrase. Thus : To live peaceably is to live happily. To live at peace is to be happy. To read well is a rare accomplishment. To stay at home is against his inclination. To pause for a moment was his custom.
When the subject is a transitive participle, it must take its object after it. Thus: Discovering new countries suits an adventurous spirit. Raising large sums of money was his constant task. Teaching the poor is his work. Visiting the sick occupied all her leisure.
The participle used as a subject may (like other verbs) take an adverbial adjunct after it. Thus: Rising early is healthy. Bathing in cold water is invigorating. Sleeping during the day should not be encouraged.
The infinitive verb and the participle used as subjects are verbs used as nouns, and by reason of their verbal character they take their objects after them. For the same reason they take adverbial extensions of time, place, or manner, as do other verbs. Thus: Gathering flowers, in the woods in summer, possesses a charm for children.
When the subject is an adjective absolute, it may, like other adjectives, be qualified by an adverb or adverbial phrase; as, The very poor have few enjoyments. The truly great acknowledge their faults. The severely critical often overlook their own sins. The Predicate.'
The predicate is that which we assert or say of the subject. We may readily find the predicate in a clause or sentence by asking what is said of the subject. Thus: Gold glitters in the sun. We are speaking of gold. What do we say of gold? That it glitters.--So: John is diligent in his work. We speak of John. What do we say of him? That he is diligent.
The predicate is the second essential element in a clause or sentence, the subject being the first. Each clause and simple sentence must have a predicate.
The word predicate is derived from the Latin word predico, to say forth; the word 'preach' is a softened form of predicate.
Verbs are the only words which are in themselves capable of forming predicates. Examples—We sleep. They read.
The terms verb and predicate are not synonymous, that is, they have not exactly the same meaning. The predicate may be formed of a single verb, and in all cases it must contain a verb; but frequently the single verb does not express what we wish to assert regarding the subject, and some other part of speech is necessary to complete it. Examples—Canute was a Dane. I . am he. That appears good. We were punctual. They seem delighted.
Finite verbs only are capable of forming predicates.
A finitè verb expresses action, state, or condition asserted of a particular person, place, or thing, the name of which forms the subject of the sentence. Example—The bird sang sweetly. Here the action of singing, which might be ascribed to boys and girls, men and women, or might be spoken of without reference to any person or animal, is confined or limited to the subject, bird, for the time being, and is therefore said to be finite. The assertion it makes ends with the subject.
We might speak of the action of singing without stating that either bird or child, man or woman, performed it; in such cases the verb is infinite, i.e. not finite in its meaning. Examples—To sing. To play. Singing. Playing.
The predicate may say regarding the subject
(a) What it is, or what it is not; as, Potatoes are parts of underground stems. They are not roots.
(6) What it does, or what it does not; as, Water absorbs gases. It does not absorb oil.
(c) What it suffers, or what it does not sufier; as, The town was besieged, but it was not captured.