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'For in that sleep of death what dreams may come,
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause: there's the respect
That makes calamity of so long life.'--Hamlet.

1. (a) Point out and analyze the substantive and adjective sentences in the above, and show why each is so called.

(6) Parse fully all the pronouns in the above.
(c) Give in your own words the meaning of this passage.

2. Mention any four words in our language that are evidently of Latin origin, and four that are evidently of Anglo-Saxon.

3. Give, when you can, the ancient positive forms from which the following comparatives are derived :-elder, nether, former, more, further.

[This passage consists of two sentences. The first ends at 'pause,' and consists of three clauses :-(1) 'For the dreams must give us pause;' (2) 'Which may come in that sleep of death;' (3) When we have shuffled off this mortal coil.' Here (2) is adjective to (1), because it qualifies the noun dreams.' In the same manner, that makes calamity,' etc., is adjective, because it qualifies the noun 'respect.'

The term substantive sentence must be intended to mean principal clause; but we never before saw the term so applied. *Clause' and 'sentence' are evidently confused in the question.]

1. (a) A. Subordinate clause, adverbial of reason to a previous

clause. Principal or substantive to B. 1. For

connecting particle 2. what=those

adjective adjunct to 3 3. dreams

subject 4. must give

predicate 5. us= to us

adver, adjunct of limitation to 4 6. pause


B. Subordinate clause, adjective to A 3 (describing 'dreams '). 1. Which

subject 2. in that sleep

adver. adjunct of limitation to 4 3. of death

adjective adjunct to 2 4. may come

predicate C.1 Subordinate clause, adverbial of time to B 4. 1. When

connecting particle 2. we

subject 3. have shuffled off

predicate 4. this mortal coil

object D. Principal or substantive clause to E. 1. The respect

subject 2. is there

predicate E. Subordinate clause, adjective to D (describing ‘respect'). 1. That

subject 2. makes to be of so long life predicate 3. calamity

object (6) The pronouns in the above passage are : Whates those-adjective, demons., to dreams.'

" I whichpron., rel. to 'dreams,' nom. to 'may come.'' 2. wenom. to 'have shuffled.' 3. us—objective by 'to understood. 4. that (= which)nom. to 'makes.'

(c) In the lines immediately preceding these, Hamlet has been contemplating suicide as a means of putting an end to his misery. He thinks of death as a sleep-a state of oblivion. Then he reasons that if death is a sleep, it may be disturbed, as sleep is. The soul lives on, and may still suffer, as we suffer misery in dreams, though our bodies are unconscious. So he hesitates.

Paraphrase.—For the thought of the consciousness, that we may still possess after our bodily life is destroyed, is enough to make us hesitate. That view of possible suffering after death makes men endure suffering in this world, instead of ending it at once by suicide.

3. The positive of elder' was eld; of nether, nyth or neath (still retained in 'beneath,' 'underneath'); of 'former,' forma ; of more,' moe; of further,'far.

1 This sentence would not be given in the answer, as adverbial sentences are not required by the question.


*This above all,—to thine own self be true;
And it must follow, as the night the day,
Thou canst not then be false to any man.'

A. Simple sentence.
I. (Mark)

predicate 2. this

object 3. above all

adver. adjunct to I

B. Principal clause to C. 1. Be true

predicate 2. to thine own self adver. adjunct of limitation to i

C. Subordinate adjec. clause of consequence to B. 1. And

connecting particle 2. it

subject 3. must follow

D. Subordinate adver: clause of manner to C 3.

connecting particle 2. the night

subject 3. (follows)

predicate 4. the day

object · E. Subordinate noun subject clause to C 3. 1. (That)

connecting particle 2. thou

subject 3. canst not be false

predicate 4. then

adver. adjunct to 3 (time) 5. to any man

adver. adjunct of limitation to 3 B, C, D, and E form a complex sentence. It will be acknowledged, even by those who practize it not, that cleare and round dealing is the honour of man's nature; and that mixture of falshood is like allay in coyne of gold or silver, which may make the metall worke the better, but it embaseth it.'—LORD BACON.

(a) Point out any old-fashioned words or spellings to be noticed in the above.

(6) Give the sense of the passage in your own words.

1. As

(c) Point out the adverbial and the noun sentences.
(d) Parse the words in italics.
(a) Practize, now practise as a verb, practice as a noun.
Cleare, now clear.

Round, not used in this sense in modern English. Neither is clear. We now use the word fair instead of clear, and just instead of round.

Falshood, now falsehood.
Allay, now alloy.

Coyne, now coin.
Metall, now metal.

Worke, now work. Embaseth means to make base, or lower in quality. Although we retain many words with the prefix em, which means to make or endow, as emboss, embolden, empower, we have lost the word embase.

(6) Men whose own conduct is not regulated by right principles are ready to admire truth and honesty, and to confess that those who practise it are the highest types of human nature; and that deceit debases a man's nature, as alloy debases pure gold or silver, though such alloy may render it easier to shape.

(C) A. Noun subject clause to B. 1. That

connecting particle 2. cleare and round dealing subject 3. is the honour

predicate 4. of man's nature

adjec. adjun. to 3 (honour)

B. Principal clause. 1. It

subject 2. will be acknowledged predicate 3. even

adver. adjun. of emphasis to 2 4. by those

adver. adjun. of limitation to 2 C. Subordinate adjective clause to B 4. 1. Who

subject 2. practize not

predicate 3. it

object D. Subordinate noun subject clause to B. 1. And

connecting particle 2. that

connecting particle 3. mixture

subject 4. of falshood

adjec. adjunct to 3 5. is like allay


6. in coyne

adver, adjun. of place to 'exist

ing' (understood) 7. of gold

adjec. adjunct to 'coyne' E. Principal clause, co-ordinate with F. 1. Which

adjec. adjunct to 2 2. allay

subject 3. may make

predicate 4. (to) worke = workability object 5. the metall=in the metal adver. adjun. of limitation to 2

F. Principal clause, co-ordinate with E. 1. But

connecting particle 2. it

'subject 3. embaseth

predicate 4. it

object The above clauses form a complex sentence. Note.—The relative pronoun generally introduces a subordinate adjective clause, as, “That is the thing which I want;' there is no such subordination in this instance. Such cases may be detected by trying whether the personal pronoun can be substituted for the relative. In clause E ‘it can be used instead of 'which,' but not in that given as an example of a true adjective clause.

(d) Even is an adverb of emphasis, equal to the old adverb verily. That, a conjunction. Honour, abstract noun in the nominative case, following is.' Man's, noun in the possessive case, qualifying 'nature.' Allay, noun in the objective case, governed by “to' understood. Which, relative pronoun, here standing as a demonstrative adjective qualifying 'allay,' as in the sentence, 'Which thing is an allegory,' and connecting two clauses by virtue of its nature as a relative. May, from magan, to be able; verb defective, irregular, indicative mood and auxiliary of the potential. Make, equal to make, verb, irregular, infinitive, indicative, object of 'may,' and forming with may a verb of the potential mood. Metall (see analysis), objective case, governed by preposition 'in' understood. Worke, verb, regular, infinitive mood, forming object of verb 'may make,' and equal in meaning to workability. Metal, noun in objective case, governed by 'in' (understood). Better, comparative of adverb well,' adverb, qualifying 'worke.'

Note.Answers (c) and (d) are not strictly as asked for; pupil. teachers may not take the same liberty at examinations.

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