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to attend him into Scotland*. Another was erected by Christopher Rawlinson t, to his parents, whose mother was a direct descendant from Edward the Fourth. Here are some fine monuments in commemoration of different branches of the Lowther and Preston families of Holker-Hall; and on a small marble slab in the south wall, is an ancient Epitaph in verse on Ethelred Thornborough, who was of an ancient family of Humpsfield-Hall, near Cartmel. The poetry is curious. On the monument of Mr.J. Robinson, is recorded a donation of twenty pounds, the interest arising from which is always to be given to the Guide over Lancaster Sands. Attached to this church are five Chapelries ; i. e. at Staveley, six miles north ; Cartmel-fell, six miles north-east; Lindal, three miles east; Broughton, two miles north; and Flockburgh, which is two miles south. All the livings are in the gift of Lord George Cavendish.
The streets of Cartnel are narrow and irregular. Besides the church, here is a Free-Grammar School, well endowed; and its School-House was rebuilt in 1790. Cartmel-well, or spring, about three miles south of the town, issues from the base of a projecting rock, and is of a brackish taste. Having the reputation of being serviceable in scorbutic cases, occasions a considerable influx of company during the summer months.
About four miles north-west from Cartmel is BIGLAND, the seat of George Bigland, Esq. The house and grounds are pleasantly situated, near a small piece of water; and from the higher lands
very extensive views are obtained over Furness-fells, Leven Sands, the pile of Fouldrey, &c. In the kitchen at Bigland is an inscription on the chimney-piece, with the following letters and figures: I. B. 1161. From this, some persons have erroneously ascribed the carving to that era.
* Dugdale's Baronage, Vol. II. p. 99. † This gentleman, who resided at Clark-Hall in this county, made large Topographical Collections relating to Westmoreland and Cumberland; copies of which are at Rydal. Gougl's British Topography, Vol. II. p. 311.
At a short distance west of Cartmel is HOLKER-HALL, one of the seats of Lord George Cavendish, who succeeded the Lowther family, and that the Prestons in this Demesne and Lordship. The house is a large irregular building, forming two right angled sides of a triangle, and has been partly fronted in the “ Gothic style.” The park is finely wooded, and from its rocky hills commands some grand and highly picturesque views. The interior of this ancient mansion contains a large collection of pictures ; some of which are fine, and curious. Among the PORTRAITS are likenesses of the following persons : DUCHESS of CLEVELAND, who was one of King Charles the Second's mistresses; by Lely. Mr. Pennant characterises this royal courtezan by the terms of beautiful, abandoned, vindictive, and violent.
ADMIRAL PENN, half length; dressed in black, with a cravat and sash, long hair, and, as Mr. Pennant remarks, “ of a good honest countenance.” This gentleman was advanced, early in life, to the highest naval appointments; was a Captain at the age of twenty-one ; Rear-Admiral of Ireland at twenty-three ; General in the first Dutch war at thirty-two; disgraced and imprisoned by Cromwell for his unsuccessful attempt on St. Domingo, though he added, in that expedition, Jamaica to the British crown. On the restoration, he commanded under the Duke of York, in the same ship, at the great naval engagement of 1665, when the laurels of the first day were blasted by the unfortunate inactivity of the second ; “ for where princes are concerned, the truth of miscarriages seldom appears.
He soon afterwards retired from the service, and died at the early age of forty-nine *.”
Sir JAMES LOWTHER, of whom the same writer observes, that he was “a character too well known to be dwelt on :" but Mr. Warner
says, was well known for his extreme penuriousness, which obtained him the appellation of Farthing Jemmy t." THOMAS WRIOTHESLY, Earl of Southampton; a head. This
* Pennant's Tour in Scotland,” Vol. II. p. 28... + A Tour through the Northern Counties, 8vo. 1802.
upright nobleman was the staunch friend of Lord Clarendon, and virtuous treasurer of the first years after the Restoration.
VANDYCK, when young, by himself.
SIR THOMAS RISTON, an ancient proprietor of Furness Abbey and Manor.
Among the Pictures, the following are esteemed works of merit: Two Lundscapes by Claude ; and one by Zuccarelli ; two Interior Views of Churches, one by day-light, and the other represented under the effect of lamp-light; by P. Neefs, with figures, said to be by Elshiemer.
ST. FRANCIS D'Assize, kneeling. This is a fine, and very impressive picture, in the style of Spagnoletto.
Two Large Landscapes, by Claude: a Party of Peasants playing at Cards, by Teneirs.
Two Pictures, by Wouverman.
A Landscape and Cattle, by RUBENS; with a gleam of sun seen through the trees. This has been engraved.
A Landscape, by Hobbima.
In the vicinity of Holker is FLOOKBOROUGH, which was once a market town, and had a charter granted it by King Edward the First; but is now reduced to a small village. Near this place, according to the statement of Mr. West, is a noted Spa, called the Holy-well, the water of which is esteemed of service in most cutaneous diseases.
The direct and nearest road from Cartmel to Ulverston, Dalton, &c. is across another bay, or creek, called the Leven-Sands. This
passage, like that over the Lancaster Sands, is precarious, and a Carter, or guide, is always stationed here to conduct the stranger through the bed of the river. At spring-tides, the water is sometimes fifteen feet above the level of those sands. Nearly in the midst of these sands is a small insulated tract called Chapel-Island, where are a few remains of an ancient Oratory, or chapel, sup
posed to have been built by the monks of Furness, and provided with a priest, whose office was to offer up daily prayers for the safety of passengers. About midway between the shores, the united waters of the Leven and Creke rivers pass to the sea, and are fordable, with a smooth sandy bottom, when the tide is out. The scenery around this flat tract, is diversified, grand, and awful; and, according to the different seasons, or as seen under the influence of clear, cloudy, or stormy weather, assumes an almost endless change of effects. To the south, the retiring sea, uniting its silvered edge with the shining sand, is seen forming a long straight line, with gleams of light and streaks of shade, and studded with different sized vessels, whose masts and sails intersect the hazy horizon ; whilst the promontories and creeks of the Lancashire coast terminate the prospect to the south-east. The view to the north presents a very different aspect ; for here the rugged shores, with the towering mountains, spotted with tracts of woodland and heath, constitute a scene of much grandeur and sublimity. About one mile from the carter's house, on the western side of these sands, is
A neat and ancient market town, the capital and mart of Furness. This is pleasantly situated on a declivity towards the south, at the distance of about a mile from an arm of the bay of Morecambe, called Leven Sands, whence vessels of one hundred and fifty tons burthen come up to the port at high water. The principal trade of this place is in iron ore, pig and bar iron, limestone, blue slate, 'oats, barley, and beans; which last has been sent to Liverpool, in large quantities, for the food of the negroes in the Guinea trade. In 1774, seventy ships were employed by this town in the coasting trade. The manufactures carried on here are cotton, check, canvas, and hats. Ulverston obtained a charter from Edward the First, in the eighth year of his reign, for a weekly market and annual fair ; but was not much benefited by this grant, while Furness Abbey was inhabited by the monks, as the
great mart of this district was the town of Dalton, which, from its contiguity and connection with the Abbey, superseded all the vicinal towns. After the dissolution of that monastery, Dalton lost its importance, and Ulverston, from its convenient and central situation, became the emporium of the district. The market is held on Thursdays, and is well supplied with grain and all kinds of provisions. The grant of Edward the First authorized a fair in the second week of September; but this privilege is now obsolete, and the fairs are held on Holy Thursday, and the Thursday vext after October 23d, when great numbers of cattle are sold from the town and its vicinity. The town has greatly improved in appearance within the last fifty years: the streets are spacious and clean, and the houses, which, from the advance of trade, rapidly increase in number, are well built. At the intersection of two principal streets, in the centre of the most ancient part of the town, is an old cross.
The Church, which stands in a field at a small distance from the town, was almost wholly rebuilt in 1804: it is a plain, neat structure; has three aisles, and a square tower. In this town is a small theatre, an assembly room, and public subscription library. A Canal, about a mile and a quarter in length, was cut in 1795, to form a communication from the east side of the town, to the channel of the river Leven. It is well supplied with water, has a spacious bason, with a warehouse, and has been navigated by ships of 400 tons burthen. It was made after the plans of Mr. J. Rennie. The number of inhabitants, according to the return of 1801, was 2937, and of houses 629.
At a short distance from Ulverston is CONISHEAD, or Conishead-Priory, the seat of Wilson Bradyll, Esq. The house stands on the site of the ancient priory of Conishead, at the foot of a fine eminence; and the slopes have been planted with shrubs and trees, so as to improve the elevation. The south front of the mansion is modern, with an ornamental arcade ; whilst the north front is in the “ Gothic style," with a piazza and wings. Mr. West calls this domain, “ the paradise of Furness, or Mount Edgecumbe in miniature," and the house, he says, is good and convenient, command