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some, and nearly uniform in its style of architecture. It may be fairly ranked with the finest religious edifices in the county; and consists of a nave, two ailes, a chancel, with two tiers of windows, two porches, and a tower, with a spire, all measuring 140 feet in length. The latter is octangular, and ornamented with crockets at each angle, extending all the way up. Mr. R. Rouse conjectures, that this chapel, &c. was built by Jolin of Gaunt, as the tradition of the inhabitants, and the various arms found in the building, seem to indicate ; but Mr. Nichols supposes that it was erected by Geffrey le Scrope, “whose arms were repeated on the steeple. This chapel is mentioned in an ecclesiastical record of 1344,” where it is noticed as parcel of the Rectory of Bowden Magna.
In this town are three meeting houses; for Presbyterians, Quakers, and Methodists. Here is a weekly market held on Tuesday, and one chartered fair annually; another fair is also established by custom. In the principal street is a large townhall, and near the church is a charity School, founded by Mr. Smith. In the time of Queen Elizabeth, a large manufactory of shoes for foreign trade was established here; and at present the making of tammies, shalloons, plain and figured lastings, &c. afford employment and succour to many poor families of the town and neighbourhood. The business in these articles is very considerable; and Mr. Nichols observes, that in some years “it is computed that 30,000l. has been returned in the article of tammies only." Harborough contains 330 houses, and 1716 inhabitants.
Harborough appears to have been the head quarters of the King's Army, previous to the memorable battle of Naseby, in Northamptonshire, which proved so fatal to the royal cause in June, 1645. The king was at Lubbenham, and hearing that the parliament's army was beating up in the rear of the royal camp, hastened to Harborough, and called a council of war. It was then agreed to hazard an engagement the next morning; and the royal army formed, it is supposed, upon the hill south of the town, between Oxendon and Farndon. From this advan
tageous position they were drawn by the rashness of Prince Rupert, and hurried on to battle, in which, in a few hours, the king's party was completely routed. Had there been the same caution and prudence on the side of the Royalists as with the Parliamentarians, the issue would most likely have been different; for though in point of numbers the armies were nearly equal, yet the royalists had considerable advantages, if they had prudently and skilfully employed them. Instead of which, they made a quick march of four miles, and attacked the enemy in a lofty, commanding, and advantageous situation, before their own cannon arrived. The consequence was inevitable, and the infatuated and ill conducted royal army were nearly all slain and taken prisoners. Many of them were conveyed back to Harborough, and confined all night in the chapel. The following puritanical letter from 0. Cromwell to the Speaker, dated from this town, details some events of this memorable engagement.
“ For the Hon. William Lenthall, Speaker of the Commons'
House of Parliament.
“ Haverbrowe, June 14, 1645. Being commanded by you to this service, I think myself bound to acquaint you with the good hand of God towards you
We marched yesterday after the king, who went before us from Daventry to Haverbrowe, and quartered about six miles from him. This day we marched towards him. He drew out to meet us. Both armies engaged. We, after three hours fight very doubtful, at last routed his arny; killed and took about 5000; very many officers, but of what quality we yet know not. We took also about 200 carriages, all be had, and all his guns, being twelve in number; whereof two were demi-culverins, and (I think) the rest sakers. We pursued the enemy from three miles short of Haverbrowe to nine beyond, even to the sight of Leicester, whither the king filed. Sir, this is none other but the hand of God; and to him alone belongs the glory, wherein none
are to share with him. The General served you with all faithfulness and honour; and the best commendation I can give of him is, that I dare say he attributes all to God, and would rather perish than assume to himself, which is an honest and a thriving way: yet as much for bravery must be given him in this action as to a man. Honest men served you faithfully in this action, Sir, they are trusty. I beseech you, in the name of God, not to discourage them. I wish this action may beget thankfulness and humility in all that are concerned in it. He that ventures his life for the liberty of his country, I wish he trust God for the liberty of his conscience, and you for the liberty he fights for. In this he rests, who is your humble servant,
The movements of the king, immediately before this battle, are thus recorded by an attendant:
“ June 4, 1645, the king, from Leicester, lay at Wistow one night at Sir Richard Halford's.
“ 5th, Removed to Lubbenham near Harborough, and staid two nights at Mr. Collins's.
* 7th, Went to Daventree, and staid six nights at the Wheatsheaf; whence Oxford was relieved from the siege and victualted.
“ 13th, Re-marched to Lubbenham, to Mr. Collins.
* 14th, An alarm affrighted the king and army at two in the morning to Harborough, the general's quarters; thence, about seven, marched towards Naseby, where the parliament's army quartered; rashly fought with them; were utterly defeated through the cowardice of the horse, who fled to the walls of Leicester, sixteen miles, and never faced nor rallied till there."
This defeat was attended with two peculiarly distressing cir. cumstances. The King's cabinet of letters, among which were the private ones that passed between him and his Queen, were basely published by the insulting foe.
And the conquerors, fiercely pursuing the routed royal army, killed, besides many men, tadies, whose coaches were overturned in their hasty flight,
particularly in the south part of Farndon-field, within the gateplace in the road between Naseby and Farndon. The parliament horse galloping along, as Mr. Morton (the author of the Natural History of Northamptonshire) was informed by an eye-witness, cut and slashed the women, with this sarcasm at every stroke, “ Remember Cornwall, you whores!" Sir Ralph Hopton, as they said, having used their women in Cornwall in the like mapper, In this pursuit, the enemy killed above one hundred women, whereof some were the wives of officers of quality,
At BRADLEY, in the parish of Medbourn, a small lordship on the south-eastern edge of the county, was a Priory of canons regular of the order of St. Austin, founded by Robert Bundy, or Burnely, in the reign of King John. The lords Scrope of Bolton, styled by Dugdale the second founders, were considerable benefactors to, and afterwards patrons of, this small religious house. On the site of the priory is a single house, and near it is a deep Well walled round beneath the surface. It is called Our Lady's Weu.
BURROW, in some old writings called Burg, Erdeburg, Erdburrow, &c. is a village situated on an eminence near the yerge of the county, where it joins Huntingdonshire. This place is noted by some antiquaries for its castrametations, on which both Leland and Stukeley have descanted. The former says, " the place that is now cawllid Borow-Hilles, is duble diched, and conteinith within the diche to my estimation a ijii score acres. The soile of it bearith very good corne. First I tooke bit for a campe of menne of warre; but after I plaine perceived that hit had beene waullid about with stone, and to be sure, pullid out some stones at the entering of hit, where hath bene a great gate, and ther found lyme betwixt the stones. But whither ther hath been any mo gates there than one, I am not sure, but I conject ye. Very often hath be founde ther Numisma Romana of gold, sylver, and brasse, and fragmentes of al foundations in plowying. Ees
This stondith in the very hy way betwixt Melton and London. To the Borow-hilles every yere on Monday after White-Sonday, cum people of the contery ther about, and shote, ronne, wrastel, dawnce, and use like other feates of exercyse.” (These rural sports continued in vogue till within a few years.) “Borow village is within lesse than half a mile of hit; and there dwellith one Mr. Borow, the greatest owner there.
“ Borow-hilles be aboute a vii miles from Leyrcestre. From Borow-hilles to launde a v mile. The soile directo itinere, betwyxt Southripe and laund, is baren of wood, but plentiful of corne and pasture, especially abowt launde quarters. But the soile abowte launde is wooddy; and the forest of Ly, of sum caullid Lyfeld, joynithe to launde by Este. And the soile of Owsen Abbey is also very wooddy*.”
These notices of our old tourist are curious and interesting; as displaying the state of the place when he visited it, and also as serving to characterize the customs of the people, and natural features of the county, almost three hundred years ago. Camden conjectures that the Roman station, called by Antoninus, Vernometum, was at Burrow : but, by the authority of later antiquaries, and particularly on the judgment of the Rev. T. Leman, I have been induced to fix this station on the northern border of the county, near Willoughby. Dr. Stukeley describes the hill at Bur
as a great Roman camp, on the north west tip of a ridge of bills, and higher than any other part of it, of a most delightful and extensive prospect, reaching as far as Lincoln one way. The fortification takes in the whole summit of the hill; the high rampire is partly composed of vast loose stones, piled up and covered with turf. It is of an irregular figure, humouring the form of the ground nearly a square, and conformed to the quarters of the heavens, its length lies east and west ; the narrowest end eastward. It is about 800 feet long; and for the most part there is a ditch besides the rampire. To render the ascent still more difficult to assailants, the entrance is south-west at a corner from
a narrow * Leland's Itinerary, Vol. V. p. 93, 94,