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afterwards, with much propriety, succeeded, has been productive of advantage to both. The PUBLIC-BATHS, which are situated at the entrance of the Infirmary Walks, consists of hot, tepid, vapour, and cold baths, to which are attached very comfortable dressing-rooms, that are regulated with the strictest order and propriety; we feel doubly called upon to express our approbation of the terms of admission, which are moderate, and the application of the profits to the support of the Infirmary. The LYINGIN HOSPITAL, at Salford, instituted in 1790, not only provides professional aid and domestic accommodation for pregnant women who are received into it, but for the delivery of poor married women at their own houses, with proper advice, and suitable medicines. The HOUSE OF RECOVERY is an appendage to the Infirmary, and intended to accommodate 100 patients, with proper offices. This originated in 1796, and is calculated for persons in contagious fevers; but persons having scarlet and epidemical fevers, in particular, are completely shut out from the rest of the house; the apartments being ventilated in the best possible manner, to lessen the predominant effluvia, and prevent the circulation of the morbid matter. The STRANGERS' FRIEND SOCIETY, instituted in 1791, distributes cloaths, beds, and blankets, and wbatever may be found necessary for the comfort of poor strangers, who have been industriously sought out, when sinking under the pressure of poverty and disease; and it should not be unnoticed, that people of every religious persuasion are subscribers to it, and that the methodists, with whom it first originated, invariably exclude their own poor from its benefits. The BoROUGHREEVE'S CHARITY arises from lands and moneys, left for distribution to poor, aged, and impotent inhabitants in Manchester. These are provided with linen cloth, coats, gowns, or money, at discretion, according to their respective wants; but the lands have been lately sold for building on, and the value of that part of the property is augmented in more than a quadruple proportion. The cloth given on this occasion, is so marked as to prevent its being either pawned or sold.
Societies for the propagation of knowledge, and dissemination of useful and valuable discoveries, are bumerous in Manchester.. The GRAMMAR SCHOOL has been already mentioned; beside's which there are many private schools, both here and in Salford The LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, established in 1781, of which the late Dr. Thomas Percival, a native of Wafringtort, was long president, is the most noted. It has published several volumes of its memoirs, some of which have been translated into the French and Gernian languages. The society's meetings are every Friday fortnight, fron: October to April, inclusive; and, on admission by ballot, each member pays an entrance of two guirreas, and an annual subscription of one guinea.The PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY was instituted in 1803, on the model of a similar society in Liverpool. Its professed object is, “ to cultivate literature and scienee in general, Polemie politics, and Polemic divinity only excepted."--The MANCHESTER CIRCULATING LIBRARY, instituted in 1757, is the joint property of about 370 subseribers; the priee of an admission ticket being five guineas. The price of an admission and proprietary tícket, which is transferable by sale or legacy, is now five guineas, and each member pays fifteen shillings yearly.--The MANCHESTER NEW CIRCULATING LIBRARY was instituted in 1792, and is supported by an advanced sum, and annual subscription from the members. Tlie library contains nearly 3000 volumes, A new building in Mosley Street, called the PORTICO, has been erected for a library, news-room, &c. This has been built, and its expences are defrayed by a number of proprietors, who paid thirteen guineas* in advance, and an annual subscription of two guineas. This building is large and handsome, and contains a coffee or news-room, sixty-five feet long, by forty-five feet wide, and forty-four feet in height to the top of the dome. Besides these, there are other reading and literary societies in this fowa.
* This sum has been since raised to twenty guineas; and when the number amounts to 400, the price of admission will be advanced to thirty gui
The MANCHESTER AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, instituted for the purpose of promoting and encouraging the useful arts and sciences of life, was established in 1767, and since that period has distributed many premiums for valuable discoveries. One object of this society cannot be too warmly recommended, por can it be too much imitatod ; that of granting preniums to cot. tagers who support their families without parochial aid. Honest and good servants are also rewarded by honorary presents.
The REPOSITORY is an institution adapted to encourage and reward industrious females. At this repository, the necessitowe may send, with a ticket and price, any article of fancy-work, or useful contrivance, which is exposed for sale, and, when sold, the
mioney is paid over to the owner, who pays one penny in a shilling for commission. This very important establishment has proved eminently serviceable to many individuals, and is entitled tn liberal and careful support.
Though most of the public buildings be devoted to business and religion, yet, in so populous a place, we may justly expeet to meet with some appropriater to amusement. Of these, the THEATRE is the most promijent. A new building, on a large scale, bas very recently been erected, and was first opened in 1807. The present manager and proprietor iş Mr. Macready, who is also propietor of the Birmingham, and some other smaller provincial theatres.
The AssĽMBLY Rooms are contained in a plain building, which was erected by a subscription of 100 persons, at 50l. each. The first public assembly occurred in September, 1792. The ball-room is eighty-seven feet long, by thirty-four feet broad; and is decorated with three elegant pendant, and twelve ponral glass chandeliers. In the tea-room is a full length pertrait of the late LORD STRANGE, father to the present Earl of Derby. An inscription on it states, that the former nobleman procured the repeal of an act for imposing a duty on linen-yarn. This picture was painted by "Edward Penny, professor of painting to the Royal Academy, 1773."
A CONCERT-ROOM was erected here in 1774, and its meetings are well supported by amateur musicians, and are generally frequented by a crowded audience.
From places of information and amusement let us turn to such as have been raised for the purposes of restraining and punishing vice. THE NEW BAILEY PRISON, in Salford, was finished in 1790, and is a large appropriate pile of building. It is constructed on Howard's plan, and was raised at the expense of the hundred of Salford, to which district it is wholly appropriated. The whole building is inclosed within a square wall of 120 yards in diameter. At the entrance is a handsome rusticated building, containing the sessions-room, wherein weekly and quarterly courts are assembled ; and adjoining it are with-drawing rooms for the magistrates, counsel, jurors, witnesses, &c. The Turnkey lives on the ground floor, and behind the lodge, in the midst of a large area, is the prison, of the form of a cross, three stories bigh. From the centre of each story all the four wards, with the door of every cell, may be seen. No prisoner here is fettered; but, if refractory, is removed to a solitary cell. All the prisoners wear blue and red before conviction, and blue and yellow afterwards ; and no person is suffered to be idle, people of all trades being constantly employed. It is under the direction of the magistrates of the division, and affords a model of management for other prisons, which cannot be too strongly recommended.
THE BARRACKS are situated in Hulme, a township in the suburbs of Manchester, and are constructed in an uniform plan, for the accommodation of dragoons.
The civil government of Manchester is vested in a boroughreeve, who is annually chosen; two constables, and a deputy constable; and the township of Salford is under a similar government. Freed from a corporation and the degrading slavery and cramping powers of a chartered borough, the inhabitants are never annoyed with the tantalizing contests of political elections, and every
tradesman is at liberty to commence and pursue his business unmolested by arbitrary laws. For the administration of
justice, several respectable magistrates assemble on Wednesday and Saturday mornings, weekly. Quarter sessions, also, are held four times a year; when, from press of business, the court has been sometimes kept sitting nearly a fortnight. The lord of the manor, too, holds a baronial court monthly, for the recovery of small debts; and in Salford, which is a royal demesne, is a hundred court, for the same purpose, holden under the king, by the right honourable the Earl of Sefton, once a fortnight.
BRIDGES of communication between the two towns, and more distant places, over the Irwell, are the Old Bridge, which was erected about the time of Edward the Third, of three arches, on which was a chapel in Leland's time, since used as a dungeon, but removed in 1778, when the bridge was made wider. Black Friars' Bridge is built of wood, though flagged with stone for foot passengers only. The New Bridge was erected in 1783, and its expenses defrayed by subscription shares of 40). each. It is handsomely built of stone, with three arches, besides a small one left open as an acknowledgment of the Duke of Bridgewater's right to a towing path to his quay on the Salford side of the river. The subscribers, at the end of eighteen years, having reimbursed themselves by a toll on passengers of every description, with an interest of seven and a half per cent. on the original capital, not only purchased buildings, to be pulled down, at the upper end of Bridge Street, to extend the shambles, and widen the access to the bridges, but generously relinquished all future toll to the public, though, in the year preceeding it had been let for 11501. per annum*. The small stream of Irk, which passes through a part of the town, has six bridges upon it; and the Medlock, a larger current, has no fewer than nine bridges in various parts of the town. That of Oxford Street, in particular, merits much atten
* Only one halfpenny was paid by foot passengers, and a proportionate toll for carriages. The recollection that there were two free bridges on this river, must strikingly point out the great population of the towns; and this surrender of the rent of the tolls, sufficiently demonstrates the liberality of the proprietors.