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way led thence to the river, by which the ditch was filled occasionally with water; and by which, at ebb tide, provisions and stores were brought in. The prince having possessed the heights, thought the conquest easy. He encamped on the hill, and, having in vain summoned the place to surrender, he commenced the siege. This, with continual repulses, attended with great slaughter, continued one inonth: when, from treachery of the commandant, which has been alledged by some-or the works on the north side being deserted by the troops, as mentioned by others—a breach was made, and the Prince's army entered the town on the 26th of June, putting to the sword all they met: The troops from the castle then beat a parley, submitted to become prisoners of war, and the whole town surrendered. It was soon after retaken by the parliament army, and Colonel Birch was appointed governor of the castle.
After this the works were dismantled, and the place, in point of defence, totally neglected. During two insurrections in the north, in behalf of the abdicated family of James, the inhabitants, from the defenceless state of the town, were under just apprehensions for its safety. For, had not the rebels been arrested in their progress by the battle of Preston Pans, in the one case, and diverted in tlieir course, on the other, before they had seized the important post of Warrington, they would immediately have reduced Manchester, and the taking of Liverpool would then have proved a very easy task. There they would have met with men, ships, stores, &c. been enabled to have formed an easy cominunication with thie rebels in Ireland, and opened an inlet for fresh auxilliaries from France. Their designs were providentially frustrated; but this can never form an apology for leaving so important a place so totally unprotected, by sea and land, as it has long been, during the threats of invasion, and the apprehensions of revolt. For though a fort is erected on the banks of the river at the N.W. end of the town, yet this is too tridling and weak to afford scarcely any protection to the place.
Such are the chief historical and topographical features and peculiarities of the second sea-port town iu Great Britain; but to 0 %
detail, and particularly describe all the subjects and objects, directly and collaterally connected with it, would fill the pages of a large volume *. Those who wish for more copious information, are referred to the works which have been consulted for the foregoing sketch, and which will be particularized at the end of this county.
Liverpool is situated in 55° 22' north lat. and 2° 30' long. at the distance of 204 miles N. W. from London. The whole town, with its proper suburbs, includes, acccording to a survey taken by Charles Eyre, in 1785, an area of 4,000 yards from north to south, and 2,500 yards from east to west. The latter side is bounded by the river Mersey, and on the opposite side are the borders of the townships of West-Derby and Everton : whilst Toxteth-Park skirts its southern side, and the northern side joins the township of Kirkdale. The whole of this area is not, bowever, covered with buildings, though the practice of erecting new houses, and forming new streets, continues to prevail to an amazing extent: and, if persevered in, will in a short period occupy the whole space, by a connected and spacious town.
Among the eminent natives of Liverpool, the names of Deare, a sculptor, and STUBBS, the painter, will be long remembered with respect and admiration, by every true lover of the fine arts, who has had the pleasure of examining some of their best works. George Stubbs was born here in 1724, and died in London, July 10th, 1806. In early life he acquired some distinction for his knowledge in anatomy, and more particularly for that of ihe horse. In 1766, he published a learned scientific work, entitled “ The Anatomy of the Horse,” including a particular description of the bones, cartilages, muscles, facias, liganients, nerves, arteries, veins, and glands; in eighteen tables, all done from nature. This work obtained him considerable reputation; and the many excel
* The shape of the town, situation and positions of the docks; and aumber of streets, squares, &c. are all laid down in the ground-plan of the town, published in No. XIV. of the British Atlas: A small engraved view of the town taken from the cpposite side of the Mersey, accompanies this description.
lent paintings of horses, and other quadrupeds, that he continued occasionally to exhibit at Somerset-House, established for him a permanent fame, in this branch of the fine arts. As a painter of animals, lie evinced not only a peculiar taste, but a style of excellence that conferred interest, beauty, and grandeur to his pictures. Had he rest satisfied with the fame that he thus merited, and acquired, his faithful biographer would not have had occasion to notice the poor attempts at a new species of painting on wedge. wood plates, that he exhibited a short time previous to his death. These plates have been erroneously called enamel, and some critics have injudiciously praised them; but I cannot reflect on them, or characterize them, in any other view, but as the playful, or weak productions of genius, when strayed from the paths of judgment and taste.
South of Liverpool, and nearly adjoining the town, is CHILDWALL, an extensive parish, which includes the chapelries of Hale, Speke, Garston, Wavertree, Allerton, Great and Little Wollon, with several seats and manors. Among the latter, the most ancient and curious is the old mansion of SPEKE-HALL, or SPEAK-HALL, built mostly with timber and plaster, and when entire enclosed a square area or court.
The house was formerly surrounded with a moat, and came into the possession of ihe Norris family, by the marriage of Williain Norris, Esq. with Joan, daughter and heiress of John Molineaux, Esq. of Sefton. Tije Norris family was settled here for many generations: and Sir Ed. ward Norris particularly distinguished himself in the battle of Flodden-field. A mutilated pedigree of this family is painted on canvass, and attached to an ancient carved mautle-piece in one of the rooms here. This mantle-piece is esteemed a curious specie, men of old carving, and is traditionally said to have been brought from Edinburgh Castle, after the battle of Flodden, in 1513; but Mr. Hinckliffe, in the XIV ih volumine of the Archæologia, p. 22, controverts this opinion, and concludes his paper by saying“ SPEK E-HALL certainly oifers an interesting scene, as an ancient mansion, where, although the hand of time has already made
considerable ravages, the general disposition of the apartments is still to be traced ; and the carving, of which a drawing is presented to the notice of the Society, may be deemed at least so far curious, as it afforis a specinien of the taste of this country, soon after the introduction of the Italian architecture, and which, as to part of it, also seems by no means wanting in intrinsic merit.”
The estate of Speke descended from the Norris family “ to the late Topham Beauclerk, Esq. whose son, the present Mr. Beauclerk, disposed of it to the late Richard Watt, Esq. *"
At a short distance to the east of Speke, and at the southern extremity of the county, is HALE-HALL, a seat and estate belopging to John Blackburne, Esq. one of the M. P. for Lancashire. This estatė appears to have belonged to the Ireland family, soon after the conquest, and, according to some genealogical accounts, oue of them was buried in the chapel belonging to the Hutt (the original seat) as early as 1088. An heiress of that family having married Thomas Blackburne, Esq. of Orford, near Warrington, thereby conveyed this estate into a new fam.ly, and it has since devolved to the present possessor, as heir of the above, Mr. Blackburne. The oldest part of the present mansion, the north front, appears to have been built by Sir Gilbert Ireland, in 1674, and continues in a tolerably perfect state. A moderu front, to the south, has lately been erected, and this commands a fine view of the river Mersey, with the high groun:is of Cheshire, and parts of North Wales. The river here is about three miles across, and Mr. Blackburne, as lord of the manor of Hale, is entitled to fourpence for every vessel that anchors on the northern shore of the river, in this district. Near the house is a decoy-pool, for taking wild ducks, teals, widgeons, &c. Here is a small chapel, which is independent of the parish church of Chilliwall.
In this chapelry was born, in the year 1578, JOHN MIDDLETON, commonly called the “ Child of Hale," who was remark
* Archäologia, Vol. XIV. p. 20, where a slight etching is given of the chimney-piece already referred to.