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recommended by a subscriber; and, in cases of sudden accident, this prerequisite is dispensed with. It was opened in 1749, and increasing benefactions has enlarged both its powers, and its plan. The building is composed of brick, coped with stone. The wings form an Asylum for decayed Seamen, with their widows and children. This charity is supported, under the direction of a committee, by a drawback of sixpence per month from the wages of every mariner belonging to the port, or sailing out of it, like the Royal Hospital at Greenwich.
The Poor-House is a large plain building, and of a form more suitable for the uses to which such buildings are applied, than many built at a more early period.
Among other charitable institutions, particular notice is due to the Dispensary, where, since its commencement in 1778, nearly eleven thousand persons, on an average, have been annually cured, of almost every disorder incident to human nature:-and to the Asylum for the Indigent Blind, where employments, suited to their capacity, are provided for the unfortunate objects.
The LADIES' CHARITY was established in 1796, and is intended to afford relief and comfort to poor married women in child-bed, at their own houses. This very laudable and humane. institution is chiefly supported and patronized by the benevolent part of the fair sex; and it must afford them much heart-felt pleasure to know, that nearly 500 suffering females have derived relief and cheering assistance, in one year, from this benign charity.
Public Buildings, and Places devoted to Amusement, &e. arenumerous here; and a few of the modern erections present some claims to architectural beauty. The THEATRE, situated in Williamson-square, is a large and commodious pile of building. It was finished in 1772, and cost about 60001. which sum was raised by thirty proprietors. About four years ago the front was enlarged, and a new elevation erected, after the design and under the direction of J. Foster, Esq. The company, under the management of those two pre-eminent comedians, Mr. Lewis and Mr. Knight, performs here during the summer season, when many of the first
rate London actors join it. In the season of 1798, an incident, at once singular and solemn, occurred at this theatre :-As John Palmer was performing the part of the Stranger in Kotzebue's once popular play of that name, and pronouncing the words“ there is another and a better world "-he sunk down on the stage, and immediately expired. He was buried at Walton, and soon afterwards the proprietors generously gave a benefit play for Mr. Palmer's orphan family; to whom was remitted, exclusive of funeral expenses, &c. the sum of 4121.
The ATHENÆUM is a building and establishment, calculated to embrace a News and Coffee-Room, and Public Library. It was commenced in 1798, and the coffee-room opened on the 1st of January, 1799. The building, which was erected by a subscription of 4,4001. arising from the shares of different members, has a stone front in Church-street; and, besides the rooms already specified, contains a handsome committee-room, and apartments to accommodate the librarian. The whole of the building, with its establishment and current support, is defrayed by about 450 subscribers, 300 of whom paid, on entrance, ten guineas for each share, afterwards the shares were raised to twenty guineas, and subsequently to thirty guineas each. Besides this, every subscriber pays two guineas annually.
The UNION News Room, a similar establishment to the above, was instituted on the 1st. of Jan. 1801, the day of establishing the Union of England and Ireland. This building cost between four and five thousand pounds, and has a stone front in Duke-street.
The LYCEUM, consisting, like the above, of a coffee-room, library, and other necessary apartments, is a large handsome pile of building, erected by Mr. Harrison, of Chester, at an expense of about 11,000l. This sum was raised by a subscription of 800 proprietors, who pay annually one guinea each towards its support, &c. The coffee-room is sixty-eight feet by forty-eight, with a coved ceiling, thirty-one feet from the floor; and, besides most of the London and provincipal newspapers, it is also supplied with many Literary Reviews and Magazines. The library-room is cir
cular, forty-five feet in diameter, and is fitted up with recesses, and adorned with several busts, &c.
The COMMERCIAL News Room, in Statham's buildings, Lord-street; and the MINERVA News Room, in Upper Dawson-street, are institutions, in some respects, similar to the preceding, though upon smaller scales.
The Music HALL, in Bold-street, is a large handsome pile of building, and provided with every accommodation for concerts, &c. It will hold nearly 1300 persons.
The ASSEMBLY Room is a part of the Liverpool Arms hotel, in Castle-street. Besides these places, Liverpool contains a circular room built for a Panorama; a Museum, belonging to Mr. Bullock; a Free-Mason's-Hall, and a BOTANIC GARDEN. The latter, at the S. E. extremity of the town, consists of about five acres of ground, enclosed by a stone wall. It is supported by 375 proprietors, who, besides an original advance, pay an annual subscription of two guineas. This novel establishment is highly creditable to the taste and character of its projectors and supporters. Presents of rare and choice plants have been sent to it from the East and West Indies, and from the Cape-of-Good-Hope.
The boundaries of the Borough of Liverpool are defined by marks, called Mere-Stones, within which its liberties are included. This extent forms an area, containing 2,102 acres; of which about 900 belong to the corporation, and the rest forms private property. But what may be considered the complete population of Liverpool, is not to be confined to these limits, as numerous streets, lanes, alleys, and buildings, have progressively multiplied around the corporate boundaries.
Like most trading places, the streets in the oldest part of the town are too narrow, either to be handsome or healthy; and, with respect to many buildings more recently erected, greater regard has been generally paid to convenience than beauty. There are, however, several handsome streets; and an increasing prosperity seems to have been accompanied by an increasing taste for elegant as well as useful building. In some of the principal streets are houses, which do credit to the style of the artists, and the
spirit of those who erected them: but being principally of brick, they lose much of the grand effect produced by free-stone fronts. In 1774, the number of streets, lanes, alleys, &c. was 230; but this number has been greatly increased, as the scheme of building several new streets, at the south end of the town, has been, since that period, in a degree carried into effect. Besides which, seves' ral rows, terraces, places, &c. in the environs, containing many good houses, have been erected.
To ascertain exactly the population of a place, so crowded with inhabitants, is a difficult task; and the difficulty is increased by the uncertain numbers necessarily absent on business. Two modes have been resorted to for ascertaining a point, which involves questions highly important in the view of policy and commierce. The one mode is, forming an average of the number of persons to each house, and multiplying that by the nunber of houses. But this is liable to considerable errors. Nething but actual enumeraiion can effectually answer the purpose, and the difficulty of making it, does not leave this method free from objections.
From lists of the population, as detailed in the histories of the town, the numbers appear to have rapidly increased during certain intervals.
In 1700, the number of houses was 1312, inhabitants 5714 1753,
34,407 From the reports of 1802, the House of Com 11,774,
But from the very incorrect method in which this census was made, cwing to the perverseness of families on the one hand, and the indolence of those appointed to make the returns, on the other, even this statement cannot be relied on.
In the present instance it is said to be
incorrect. In the year 1793, the corporation, by failures, and want of moVOL. IX.
ney, were obliged to apply to parliament for relief. The state of their affairs was printed, avouched, and laid before parliament ; by which it appeared that their income, for the year 1792, was 25,0001. 175. 11d. - that their whole property was valued at 1,044,7761.—and that their debts amounted to 367,8161. 12s.leaving a surplus of 676,959!. 88.-besides some contingent concerns, estimated at upwards of 60,000l. more. This statement was ordered to be printed i5th April, 1793, in order to ascertain the propriety of allowing the corporation to issue negotiable notes, which was granted the same year, for a limited time, and was of great service to the trade of the town. This act laid the foundation of that for the issuing Exchequer Bills, for the relief of the country: though the former was kept back till the latter had been passed.
Liverpool, as a borough, returns two members to parliament, who are elected by the votes of the free burgesses ; and of these about 2,500 possess that privilege. The town was constituted a borough 23 of Edward the First; and, in 1729, it was deterniined that the right of election was vested in the mayor, bailiffs, and freemen not receiving alms.
The military history of this town is short, and confined within narrow limits.
The parliament had a very strong garrison here in 1644, under the command of Colonel Moore, of Bank-Hall. Privce Rupert, assisted by the Earl of Derby, approached the town, after taking Bolton. It was defended on the east and north by a strong mud wall, with a vallum and foss, twelve yards wide and three deep. On the top of these were placed numerous bags of Irish wool; a vast importation having previously taken place. The south-east
was naturally defended by a wide marsi, inundated from river; the streets leading to this were shut up, and those towards the land were defended by gates, with pieces of cannon planted in each avenue.
It had a strong castle on the south, surrounded with a ditch, twelve yards wide and ten deep; upon the ramparts of which were cannon, and the entrance defended by a fort of eight guns. A