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To the Ninth Volume of the
BEAUTIES OF ENGLAND AND WALES,
THIS being the first Volume that has appeared with my name individually, I deem it necessary to apprise the reader of a few particulars respecting it; and I am impelled to this, from the questions that have been addressed to me, both verbally and by letter. The first six volumes have been jointly. executed by Mr. Brayley and myself; and it is but justice to state, that the greaf-est portion of their literary composition was from the pen of that gentleman, who, with much care and exertion, endeavoured to render them accurate and' original. The principal travelling, correspondence, labour of accumulating books, documents, direction of draughtsmen, engravers, and some other necessary vocations, devolved on me; and I felt it a pleasure and duty to prosecute my task with zeal and assiduity. At the close of the sixth volume it was deemed expedient that each of us should undertake to write and conduct a volume alternately; and, by arrangement, the counties of Hertford, Huntingdon, and Kent, devolved on Mr. Brayley; whilst Lancashire, Leicestershire, and Lincolnshire, came under
direction. It now remains for me to explain how I have executed these; what assistance has been derived from correspondence, &c. and, indeed, what are the differences between the subsequent topographical histories, and such as have been previously published. It has long been a maxim with me, that the writer and reader should perfectly understand each other; that there should be no reserve or ambiguity in the former, nor suspicion or doubt with the latter. A mutual cordiality and confidence should exist, and then the one would pursue his labours with comfort and pleasure to himself, whilst the other would read with additional advantage and delight: besides, in an extensive work like the present, the Author must Vol. IX.
calculate on the communications of intelligent Correspondents ; who will not be likely to write freely and fully, unless they feel confident that their favours will be properly appreciated and applied.
LANCASHIRE. The following topographical account of this county, though necessarily concise to a certain degree, is more copious and circumstantial than will be found in any other publication: for besides a careful examination, and advantage of every preceding literary work, many particulars were derived from a personal survey, others from the communications of kind and intelligent correspondents, and some from original documents. To the following noblemen and gentlemen I am indebted for many personal civilities, and for much useful information :
Edward Wilb. Bootle, Esq. M. P.
LEICESTERSHIRE. The Topography and Antiquities of this County, having been very fully and minutely narrated by Mr. J.
NICHOLS, • To each of those gentlemen whose names are accompanied by an aste. risk, I am obliged for the presentation of a Plate to this work.
* At the time this account was written, the Anthor heard, with sentiments of sincere sorrow and regret, of the death of Lord Bolton, who had manifested much kindness and unaffected civility to him, both with respect to this County, to Hampshire, and some other places.
INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS. NICHOLS, I found that a careful abridgement of, and selection from his vast stores, would be nearly all that could be done for this district. I thought it my duty, however, to offer a few original remarks and criticisms, whenever opportunities presented themselves: some of which will appear in the Biographical Accounts of Robert Burton, Lady Jane Grey, Robert Bakewell, and respecting the Antiquities of Leicester. To Mr. Nichols I feel very particularly obliged for the liberality and kindness, as well as for the promptitude he displayed in correcting all the proof-sheets of the county How very different is this conduct to that of some other Topographers, who being engaged either in the history of a county, or of a certain district, have uncivilly and injudiciously refused to furnish a hint of information; and have also endeavoured to preclude access to other persons, and obstruct the sources of information: absurdly supposing, that if they contributed to render a general Work, like this, accurate and original, they would thereby depreciate and injure their own. This is a most mistaken and illiberal policy; for the quotations and references, made in a popular general Work, (and it has been a practice with the Authors of this to acknowledge every thing) must tend to advertise and promote all others of a more local nature.
LINCOLNSHIRE. This very extensive County has scarcely been attended to by the general Topographer or Antiquary; and though it contains a City, full of Antiquities, and many towns and places replete with local and general interest, yet these have never been fully or faithfully described. (See note attached to the List of Books). It was my sincere wish, and positive intention to have supplied these deficiencies, in a small degree, and to have furnished" the Reader with a condenced rational Account of the County. For this purpose I visited most of its towns and Antiquities, and obtained numerous original communications from many intelligent persons of the County. I also carefully obtained all the published books, and sought original information from some MS. collections. The result of all which would have been given to the Public
early last Winter, but from a long series of illness, which has wholly incapacitated me from pursuing my literary labours with confort, credit, or satisfaction. In order to complete the Volume, I found it necessary to call in the aid of a literary friend, the Rev. J. Evans, Author of Two Tours in North and South Wales, who prepared the greater part of the following Account of Lincolnshire for the Press.
To the following Noblemen and Gentlemen I have to return my sincere and grateful Thanks for much useful information :
Wm. Brand, Esq.
July 25, 1808.
This Volume will include (pro tempore) the following Prints: Copped Hall.
Lediard Tregoze, Uffington Church.
Dartmouth Castle. Freshwater Cave.
Ashton Hall. Compton Castle.
Bow and Arrow Castle. Malmsbury Abbey Church.
* Exchange Buildings, Liverpool. Ludlow Castle.
* Lancaster. Wigmore Castle.
Exeter Cathedral. Goodrich Castle.
* Heaton House. * Down-Ampney.
Vignette, Roman Altar. Netley Castle and Abbey.
Hul me Hall. * Oxton House.
Radford Gate at Worksop. St. James's Church, Devizes. Newport, Isle of Wight. Manchester College.
The Swilcar Oak. * Manchester Collegiate Church. Townley Hall. * Town-Hall, Liverpool.
Liverpool, and Grantham.
England and quiales.
LANCASHIRE. AMONG the native tribes that inhabited the British Islands previous to the Roman Invasion, the Brigantes,* according to the concurring testimony of many respectable writers, were the most numerous and powerful. They possessed a tract of country which extended from the south shore of the river Humber to that of the Tyne on the eastern coast, and from the estuary of the Mersey to the Eden on the western coast. This large territory was, however, previously inhabited by some other inferior clans, of whom Ptolemy places in Lancashire the Setantii, the Segantii,t or Sistuntii; for the name is variously spelt. This appellation, according to the interpretation of the learned Historian of Manchester, was expressive of the maritime situation of the tribe, and either's simply signifies the Country of Water; or discriminately, the Interiour and southerly Country of Water : thereby expressive of the particular position of Lancashire, with respect to the Volantiit and the Sea, A 3
* For some account of this tribe, see Beauties, Vol. III. p. 3, 4, &c.
+ « This is the reading of the Palatine MS. The anonymous Ravennas calls them Sistuntiaci, more probably Seguntiaci. Vide Baxter in Voce." Dr. Whitaker.
* This class or tribe of Britons occupied the northern parts of Westmoreland, and all Cumberland; having Volanty, or Elenborough, for their capital. See Cambrian Register, Vol. II. p. 14; and Whitaker's Manchester, 4to. Vol. I. p. 64.