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the baron, his family, tenants, and foresters: for the forests of Trowden, Rossendale, Bolland, and Pendle, were all considered as within its limits. This chapel had been always deemed a parish church, as appears from the deeds of many of the neighbouring gentry, though now totally ruined, having followed the fate of all the chantries in the time of Edward the Sixth. The several chapels of Pendle, Whitewell, Rossendale, and Goodshaw, are under Clithero, and in the church, which is a chapelry belonging to Whalley, are the alabaster figures of a knight and his lady, probably some of the family of Hesketh. This parochial chapel is of high antiquity, being expressly mentioned in De la Val's charter; and the fine Saxon arch between the nave and the choir, is a complete specimen of the style which prevailed until the time of Henry the First. All the ancient inhabitants of the forests, in the most inclement seasons, and by roads almost impassable in winter, were obliged to bring their dead here for interment, though in some parts nearly twenty miles distant, before the foundation of Newchurch, in Rossendale. But the castle, with the demesnes and forests, is, strickly speaking, extra-parochial; and to this day it is distinguished by the name of castle-parish.

This town has evidently assumed its name from the situation which it possesses. It is of an origin purely British, Cle-dur denoting a bill or rock by the water, and the additional syllable hou is purely Saxon, which also denotes a hill, and is merely an explanatory addition, adapted to the language and ideas of the Saxóns. A fair, which had been held in the church-yard of Whalley, was by letters patent of the eleventh year of Henry the Fourth, transferred to Clithero, and appointed to be held there, on the eve, day, and morrow of the annunciation; and a confirmation of privileges by charter of the first of Henry the Fifth, to the free burgesses of Clyderhow, with an exception of the wood of Salthill, to be inclosed by the said burgesses at their own expence, and saving the king's rights of trying criminal causes only by the laws of the land. Clithero must have been a place of considerable importance, as we read of “ Lambert, physician of Clyderhow," probably in the time of Henry the First, or at least not much subsequent to the conquest,

and physicians cannot be supposed to meet with practice in small places. We find also that it contained sixty-six free burgesses as early as the year 1240, which was a considerable number in those days of slender population : though the township alone now contains, by the returns of 1801, 1368 persons, and 309 houses.

The town seal, as appears appendant to a charter of the year 1335, consisted of a single lion rampant, the arms of Laci, circumscribed S. Bi. CWS. DE CLIDERHOW; but their modern seal is subsequent to the restoration. Clithero is now governed by two bailiffs, who jointly exercise the power of one magistrate or justice of the peace, and are also the returning officers for the borough. Freeholders only who have estates for life or in fee, or resident owners, are entitled to vote. It has an excellent grammar school contiguous to the church yard. This strictly preserves its character as a classical seminary, and is of the endowment of Philip and Mary, under the regulation of certain statutes by order of Bishop Bridgeman. On the opposite side of the Ribble, at Edisforth, within the borough, was formerly an hospital for lepers, which was founded before dates were particularly attended to in charters. In one of these John, son of Ralph de Cliderhou, grants three acres of land in Sidhill; and various other grants are met with, till in the tiventy-fourth of Edward the Third it had neither warden nor brethren, and it was ultimately settled on the abbot and convent of Whalley. The site of the hospital was on the Yorkshire side of the Ribble.

Dr. Whitaker takes notice of a tract of country between the Ribble and Pendle Hill, bearing a “ distinct and peculiar character.” After some general observations on the nature of the soil from Lancaster to this place, as abounding with “ coals, iron, and other kindred minerals," and as possessing " a set of native plants adapted to itself;" he observes that, “ here on a sudden the crust of the earth appears to have undergone a violent disruption, in consequence of which the edges of the beds” of minerals “ thrown

up into the air, and downward towards the centre of the eartli. At an angle of no less than forty-five degrees, immediately beyond this appearance, rises the huge mass of Pendle, which

I 3

are

seems

seems to have been thrown up by the same convulsion; and iinmediately to the north again, appears a surface of lime-stone, with its concomitant system of plants and minerals, which, had the strata to the south maintained their natural position, must have Jain at a vast depth beneath. The effect of this convulsion is felt over a tract of forty miles to the north, scarcely a seam of coal being found before we arrive at Burton in Lonsdale. This fact serves to shew how much more the character of a country is determined by soil, than by climate ; since, on the north of Pendle, and even on a declivity to the north we see wheat, peas, beans, and other usual productions of a more southern husbandry, ripening at least in favourable seasons; while on the south, upon a declivity also, the hardy black oat itself is often indebted to the frosts of November for all that resembles maturity about it." This hill of Pendle, noted in the boasted rhyming phraseology of the country *, makes a conspicuous figure on the south side of the plain; and we have the authority of Mr. Pennant t, for asserting that “the sides are verdant, and the top moorish and very extensive. On this stood Malkin-Tower, celebrated, in 1633, for being the rendezvous of witches. Seventeen poor wretches were condem

ned

* Nothing is more commonly repeated in the mouths of the children of the peasantry of this county, and the adjoining one of Yorkshire, especially in the district of Craven, than the following distich :

“ Pendleliill, and Pennygent, and little Ingleborough,
Are three such hills as you'll not find by seeking England thorongh.”

Or, as it is otherwise expressed, .

“ Ingleborough, Pendlehill, and Pennygent,
Are the highest hills between Scotland and Trent."

Yet those who have calculated the altitude of these hills, and the neighbouring one of Wharnside, all of wliich are in Yorkshire, except Pendlehill, have stated that of Wharnside to be considerably higher than any of the otheis.

+ Tour from Downing to Alston-Moor, 4to. 1801, p. 79,

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ned on perjured evidence: the affair was scrutinized into, and the poor convicts set at liberty. A witness swore he saw them go

into a barn and pull at six ropes, down which fell flesh smoaking, butter in lumps, and milk as it were flying from the said ropes, all falling into six basons placed beneath; and yet, mortifying reflection! the great Sir Thomas Brown, author of the book against vulgar errors; and Glanvil, one of the first promoters of the Royal Society, which was instituted expressly for the detection of error, and establishment of truth, were sad instances of credulity in the most absurd of all circumstances. On this hill are two large carns, about a mile distant from each other: these were more probably the ruins of some ancient Speculæ, or beacon towers erected by Agricola after the conquest of the country. There is another, of more modern date, which answers to one in ingleborough-hill, twenty miles to the north. From this may be seen a most amazing extent of country: York-minster is very visible, and the land towards the German ocean as far as the powers of the eye can extend. Towards the west the sea is very distinguishable, and even the Isle of Man, by the assistance of glasses : to the north the vast mountains of Ingleborough, Wharn-side, and other of the British Apennines. The other views are the vales of Ribble, Hodder, and Calder, (the first extends thirty miles,) which afford a more delicious prospect, varied with numberless objects of rivers, houses, woods, and rich pastures covered with cattle; and in the midst of this fine vale rises the town of Clithero, with the castle at one end, and the church at the other, elevated on a rocky scar: the abbey of Whalley, about four miles to the south, and that of Salley, as much to the north, with the addition of many gentlemen's seats scattered over the vale, give the whole a variety and richness rarely to be found in any rural prospects. It is also enlivened with some degree of commerce, in the multitude of the cattle, the carriage of the lime, and the busy noise of the spinners engaged in the service of the woollen manufactures of the cloathing towns.”

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COTTON

COTTON-PRINTING, &c.—About two miles from Clithero, and nearly the same distance from Whalley, on the road from Padiham to the former town, are situated the extensive FACTORY and PRINT-GROUNDS of Messrs. Miller, Burys, and Co. in a beautiful valley, watered by a small branch of the Ribble. The situation of this part of the country is peculiarly romantic; and those works, which consist of numerous cottages and houses, intermixed with the various work-shops, form a striking a coupd'oiel from Black bill, behind which Pendle hill rises in awful grandeur, extending itself over an immense tract of country. This mountain towers in one part to a very high peak, on the top of which the Chamemorus, or wild mulberry, (a plant peculiar to high mountains and cold countries), is found in great plenty. In the works of Messrs. Miller and Co. the whole process of spinning, weaving, and printing, is carried on to a great extent; but it is almost impossible to give a clear and full description of the latter process, as every color is raised by a different method. The mode of printing a single piece of two colours, with plunub or bloom ground, and a yellow object, may, however, convey some idea of the different processes attending this part of the business. When the piece is sufficiently bleached for printing, it is calendered, or pressed between two rollers, and is then removed to the print-shop, where it is printed by means of blocks *, with a solution of lime-juice, mixed with pipe-clay. In this process the piece is stretched on a table before the printer, behind whom is placed a sieve which contains the color to be printed. This gives employment to a boy or girl, who is continually effacing with a brush the impression made by the block on the sieve, and keeping the surface constantly smoothied. After it is thus printed, it remains two or three days, when it is removed to the padding-shop, where it is padded, or steeped in a mixture of alluin and sugar of lead,

about

The blocks are generally about eighteen inches long, and twelve broad, and are cut, or engraved, with the figure, or pattern, in bold relief, which is intended to be impressed on the cotton.

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