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patera, and praefericulum," three urns, a coin of Flavius Vespasian in copper, a stylus, &c. At some distance east of Overborough, at a place called Gargrove, is a camp, which Mr. Rauthmell attributes : to Agricola, and calls it à « Castrum Aestivum." Near this place a Roman tesselated pavement was discovered some years ago. The Roman-roads connected with this station may be still discovered in some places, and on the side of the road between Overborough and Lancaster, a milliare, or Roman mile stone, with an inscription, is still preserved. This very satisfactorily proves that a Roman road communicated between these two places. At Overborough is a seat of the Fenwick family, of whom Robert Fenwick, Esq. was M. P. for Lancaster, made a king's serjeant in the duchy court; and also attorney-general, and serjeant of the county palatine of Lancaster. To this gentleman, Mr. Rauthmell inscribed his little volume, with expressions denoting his own gratitude, and encomiastic to his patron, whose house. and gardens stood“ on the east side of the fortress."
Immediately on the coast, in the village of Heysham, are the ruins of a small ancient building, called ST. PATRICK'S CHAPEL. Its architecture is of very early character: and its entrance doorway has a semicircular arch, formed out of one stone, ornamented with fluted mouldings, running round the whole door-way. The building is very small, and seated on a rock, At a short distance from one end are four holes cut in the shape of stone coffins, out of the original rock į close to which is a natural bench or seat. The whole appears to have been formed as an oratory for a catholic priest, to offer up prayers for the isouls of some shipwrecked persons who were cast away on this coast, and who were probably from Ireland.
At the distance of three miles south of Lancaster, is ASHTONHALL, a seat of his grace the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon. This was formerly possessed by the family of the Lawrences, the last male heir of whom was Sir Robert Lawrence, Knt. whose coheiress, Sibel, married Thomas Hesketh, Esq. of Rufford. Ashton-Hall, with the estate of Whittiker, near Garstang; and
other property in Staffordshire, came into the present family, by the marriage of James, Earl of Arran *, (created the fourth Duke of Hamilton, by patent, August 20th, 1697,) with Elizabeth, daughter and sole. heir to Digby Lord Gerrard of Bromley This Earl of Arran made a conspicuous figure during the reigns of Charles the Second, and James the Second, from both of whom he was deputed Envoy-extraordinary to the court of France. Besides many other posts of honour that were conferred on bim by the above monarchis, he was made Lord-Lieutenant of the county of Lancaster in 1710, Custus-Rotulorum, and Ranger of the Royal Forests for the said county; also Admiral of the Seacoasts; and in December of the same year, was sworn into the Privy Council of Queen Anne. In the next year he was created an English Peer, by the title of Duke of Brandon, in the county of Suffolk. In 1713, he fought a duel with Lord Mohun, and fell in the rencontre: but the second of his antagonist, a General Maccartney, was suspected of having slyly stabbed hiin; and a reward of 500 guineas was offered by the government, with 300l. by the -Duchess, for his apprehension. Maccartney sought refuge in a foreign country, but was taken in Hanover, and after a trial for the murder in the court of King's-Bench, was only found guilty of manslaughter.
The mansion at Ashton is a large ancient building, with some square embattled towers; a spacious Hall, and other characteristics of an old baronial castle. It is seated in a fine park, through the middle of which, a small rivulet winds its course, and after forming a narrow bay at the western side of the grounds, falls into the estuary of the Lune. The park abounds with noble woods, and is diversified with hill and valley, and from some of its eminences very extensive and grand views are obtained across the river Lune, over to Morecambe-bay, to the Irish Sea, &c, Whilst the views to the east present some very fine sylvạn and park scenery, those to the south-west and north-west unfold several G 4
grand * A small head, by Vr. Gutch, has been engraved of this nobleman: and in Noble's “ Diographical History of England,” Vol. II. p. 60. is some account of him,
grand and interesting prospects of river, sea, headlands, and distant mountains. Though much alteration has been progressively made to the mansion, the present nobleman has carefully attended 'to its ancient character, in the reparations and improvements made, since it has been in his possession.
Among the portraits and paintings which decorate the rooms of this ducal residence are the following: A portrait of Elizabeth GERRARD, Duchess of Hamilton, represented in deep mourning. Portraits of the present Duke's two sons, the Marquis of Douglass and Clydesdale; and Lord Archibald Hamilton: both by Gainsborough, and the latter is extremely fine. Portrait of the present Duke when young, by R. MENGS: and another when his Grace was in his 64th year, by J. LONSDALE, an artist who was a pupil to Romney, and patronised by this nobleman * Portrait of the late Duke of Bedford, by HOPPNER.
A Head, by Rembrandt.
Clelia escaping from the Roman Camp, by RAPHAEL: a picture of great merit and beauty. This distinguished Lady being delivered as an hostage for the security of a truce to King Porsenna, contrived to make her escape, and swam across the Tiber on a horse. She was afterwards taken, and brought back to the monarch, who, in compliment to her courage, presented her with a horse richly caparisoned, The Romans have commemorated this event by a statue on horseback, which was preserved in the Via-Sacra,
A picture representing a Boar-hunt, by SNYDERS. This was in the possession of Gainsborough.
A large Landscape with figures, by BERGHEM.
Some original Cartoons, designed by LEONARDO DA VINCI, for his much celebrated picture of the Last Supper.
Besides the above, here are many other pictures, of various merit; but the Duke, who has evinced much partiality for the fine arts, has his chief collection at Hamilton Palace, in Scotland.
About This has been engraved in mezzotinto, by Clint,
About six miles south-west of Lancaster, are some remains of COCKERSAND-ABBEY, which was founded on the site of an hospital for Premonstratentian Canons, about the year 1190, by Theobald Walter, brother of Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, who gave all the pasture grounds in Pilling as perpetual alms for the building of the Abbey. This endowment was confirmed by King John, and with other donations and gifts, received a further confirmation and establishinent by Richard the Second. The Abbey was situated on a neck of land which projects into the sea, adjoining to the sands of the river Cocker, from which its name is derived. It is fortified by a rock of red stone from the encroachments of the sea, and commands an extensive view over the sands. The buildings of this monastery are said to have covered nearly an acre of ground; but of these, the chapter-house only remains. This is an octangular room, the roof of which is supported by a single massive column rising in the centre. Buck engraved a view of this building. It is a peculiar circumstance in the history of this religious house, that within three years after its dissolution by Henry the Eighth, it was again restored to its ancient privileges, by a grant from that monarch. The estate, with the ruins, Dow belongs to John Dalton, Esq. whose manor-house, called THURNHAM-HALL, is seated on an eminence about two miles east of the Abbey. Part of this estate has liberty of free-warren.
AMOUNDERNESS, or AGMUNDERNESS HUNDRED, is separated from that of Lonsdale by a very irregular line on the north ; having Blackburn, with a small part of Yorkshire, on the east; the river Ribble, constitutes a natural boundary to the south; whilst the whole of its western side is washed by the waters of the Irish Sea. The district included within these linnits, consists of mosses, sea marshes, and low lands, to the west ; and of mountains, or moors, on its Yorkshire side. The great Turnpike-road from Preston to the north of England, . passes through the middle of this hundred: and another Turnpike-road communicates from the former town to Poulton, &c. The towns in this district are
Preston, Garstang, Kirkham, and Poulton.. Of these, the enost considerable in size, population, and elegance, is
Which is pleasantly situated on an eminence, rising froin the northern banks of the river Ribble. This town is considered the most fashionable place in the county, and both within its boundaries, and immediate vicinity, are many large and elegant mansions. Formerly it was almost free from manufactures, but now, many spacious warehouses and extensive work-shops are erected here. Respecting the antiquity of the town, very little is recorded ; though Camden remarks that it arose out of the ruins of Ribchester, a celebrated Roman station, which was situated farther up river. It is said to have derived its name from the number of religious houses founded here, and hence called Priests-town; afterwards contracted to Prest-town, Prestun, and Preston. Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, son of Henry the Third, founded a House of Grey Friars at this place: and before his time, according to Tanner, an hospital had been established here. Leland says that the former “was sette in the soile of a gentilman caullid Prestun, dwelling in the toun self of Preston*.' The ville of Preston, with some hamlets appertaining to it, was held by Tosti, the fourth son of Godwin, Earl of Kent.
In the first year of the reign of Richard the First, Theobald Walter, brother of Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, obtained a grant of the fee of the lordship of Preston, and of the whole Wapentake, or forest of Amounderness. In about five years after he was made sheriff of this county, which office he held until the first of king John, and contributed largely to king Pichard's redemption. The surname of Butler was' afterwards assumed by his son Theobald, who had married the sister of. Thomas a Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Itinerary, Vol. IV. fo. 38,