The Birth of Fascist Ideology: From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution

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Princeton University Press, 1994 - Всего страниц: 338
When The Birth of Fascist Ideology was first published in 1989 in France and at the beginning of 1993 in Italy, it aroused a storm of response, positive and negative, to Zeev Sternhell's controversial interpretations. In Sternhell's view, fascism was much more than an episode in the history of Italy. He argues here that it possessed a coherent ideology with deep roots in European civilization. Long before fascism became a political force, he maintains, it was a major cultural phenomenon. This important book further asserts that although fascist ideology was grounded in a revolt against the Enlightenment, it was not a reactionary movement. It represented, instead, an ideological alternative to Marxism and liberalism and competed effectively with them by positing a revolt against modernity. Sternhell argues that the conceptual framework of fascism played an important role in its development. Building on radical nationalism and an "antimaterialist" revision of Marxism, fascism sought to destroy the existing political order and to uproot its theoretical and moral foundations. At the same time, its proponents wished to preserve all the achievements of modern technology and the advantages of the market economy. Nevertheless, fascism opposed every "bourgeois" value: universalism, humanism, progress, natural rights, and equality. Thus, as Sternhell shows, the fascists adopted the economic aspect of liberalism but completely denied its philosophical principles and the intellectual and moral heritage of modernity.

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Fascism as an Alternative Political Culture
Georges Sorel and the Antimaterialist Revision of Marxism
The Social Myths
AntiCartesianism and Pessimism
The Junction of Sorelianism and Nationalism
Revolutionary Revisionism in France
The Emergence of Socialist Nationalism
Revolutionary Syndicalism in Italy
National Syndicalism the Production Solution and the Program of Partial Expropriation
From the Carta Del Carnaro to Fascist Syndicalism
The Mussolini Crossroads From the Critique of Marxism to National Socialism and Fascism
The Intellectual Realignment of a Socialist Militant
National Socialism
From National Socialism to Fascism
From a Cultural Rebellion to a Political Revolution

The Primacy of Economic and the Revision of Marxist Economic Doctrine
Sorel the Mobilizing Myth of the Revolutionary General Strike and the Lessons of Reality
The SocialistNational Synthesis
The Imperialism of the Workers The Syndicate and the Nation

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Zeev Sternhell is Léon Blum Professor of Political Science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. David Maisel has also translated Sternhell's Neither Right nor Left: Fascist Ideology in France (forthcoming from Princeton).

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