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imputation of its guilt. For the communication of that unto us which is not inherent in us, is that which we intend by imputation.

This is the moraoic of the intended collation, which I have insisted the longer on, because the apostle lays in it the foundation of all that he afterward infers, and asserts in the whole comparison. And here some say there is an ávavtomódarov in his discourse, that is, he layeth down the proposition on the part of Adam, but doth not shew what answereth to it on the contrary in Christ. And Origen gives the reason of the silence of the apostle herein, namely, lest what is to be said therein, should be abused by any unto sloth and negligence. For whereas he says Homep, 'as' (which is a note of similitude), by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin ;' so the amódools or reddition should be, so by one, righteousness entered into the world, and life by righteousness.

This he acknowledgeth to be the genuine filling up of the comparison, but was not expressed by the apostle, lest men should abuse it unto negligence or security, supposing that to be done already, which should be done afterward. But as this plainly contradicts and averts most of what he farther asserts in the exposition of the place; so the apostle concealed not any truth upon such considerations. And as he plainly expresseth that which is here intimated, ver. 19. so he shews how foolish and wicked any such imaginations are, as suppose that any countenance is given hereby unto any, to indulge themselves in their sins.

Some grant, therefore, that the apostle doth conceal the expression of what is ascribed unto Christ, in opposition unto what he had affirmed of Adam and his sin, unto ver. 19. But the truth is, it is sufficiently included in the close of ver. 14. where he affirms of Adam, that in those things whereof he treats, he was the figure of him that was to come. For the way and manner whereby.he introduced righteousness and life, and communicated them unto men, answered the way and manner whereby Adam introduced sin and death which passed on all the world. Adam being the figure of Christ, look how it was with him, with respect unto his natural posterity, as unto sin and death; so it is with the Lord Christ, the second Adam, and his spiritual posterity, with respect unto righteousness and life. Hence We argue,

If the actual sin of Adam was so imputed unto all his posterity, as to be accounted their own sin unto condemnation, then is the actual obedience of Christ, the second Adam, imputed unto all his spiritual seed, that is, unto all believers, unto justification. I shall not here farther press this argument, because the ground of it will occur unto us afterward.

The two next verses containing an objection and an answer returned unto them, wherein we have no immediate concernment, I shall pass by.

Ver. 15, 16. The apostle proceeds to explain his compa. rison in those things, wherein there is a dissimilitude between the comparates.'

*But not as the offence, so is the free gift; for if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, by one man Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.

The opposition is between mapántwua on the one hand, and xápcoua on the other; between which, a dissimilitude is asserted, not as unto their opposite effects of death and life, but only as unto the degrees of their efficacy, with respect unto those effects. lapáttwua, the offence, the fall, the sin, the transgression; that is, to {vòc napakon the disobedience of one, ver. 19. Hence the first sin of Adam, is generally called the fall, rò trapántwua. That which is opposed hereanto, is tò xáproua ; 'donum, donum gratuitum ; beneficium, id quod Deus gratificatur ;’ that is, χάρις του Θεού, και δωρεά έν χάριτι τη του ενός ανθρώπου Ιησού Χριστού, as it is immediately explained, “The grace of God, and the free gift by grace, through Jesus Christ.' Wherefore, although this word, in the next verse, doth precisely signify the righteousness of Christ, yet here it comprehends all the causes of our justification, in opposition unto the fall of Adam, and the entrance of sin thereby.

The consequent and effect toũ #apanthuarog' of the offence,' the fall, is, that many be dead.' No more is here intended by many,' but only that the effects of that one offence were not confined unto one ; and if we inquire who, or how many those many are, the apostle tells us, that they are all

imputation of its guilt. For the communication of that unto us which is not inherent in us, is that which we intend by imputation.

This is the moraois of the intended collation, which I have insisted the longer on, because the apostle lays in it the foundation of all that he afterward infers, and asserts in the whole comparison. And here some say there is an åvavronódatov in his discourse, that is, he layeth down the proposition on the part of Adam, but doth not shew what answereth to it on the contrary in Christ. And Origen gives the reason of the silence of the apostle herein, namely, lest what is to be said therein, should be abused by any unto sloth and negligence. For whereas he says Homep, 'as' (which is a note of similitude), by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin ;' so the ámódoors or reddition should be, so by one, righteousness entered into the world and life by righteousness.

This he acknowledgeth to be the genuine filling up o. the comparison, but was not expressed by the apostle, les. men should abuse it unto negligence or security, supposir that to be done already, which should be done afterwar. But as this plainly contradicts and averts most of what farther asserts in the exposition of the place; so the az stle concealed not any truth upon such considerations. A as he plainly expresseth that which is here intimated, vet. so he shews how foolish and wicked any such imaginati are, as suppose that any countenance is given hereby any, to indulge themselves in their sins.

Some grant, therefore, that the apostle doth concea expression of what is ascribed unto Christ, in oppos unto what he had affirmed of Adam and his sin, unto 19. But the truth is, it is sufficiently included in the of ver. 14. where he affirms of Adam, that in those to whereof he treats, he was the figure of him that was to For the way and manner whereby.he introduced right ness and life, and communicated them unto men, ans the way and manner whereby Adam introduced sit death which passed on all the world. Adam beit figure of Christ, look how it was with him, with r. unto his natural posterity, as unto sin and death; with the Lord Christ, the second Adam, and his st

die. First, therefore, there was mapántwua, the sin, the fall, TOū évòs auaprjoavtog, of one man that sinned; it was his actual sin alone. Thence followed koiua,' reatus,'' guilt;' this was common unto all. In and by that one sin, guilt came upon all. And the end hereof, that which it rendered men obnoxious unto, is karákpqua, condemnation;' guilt unto condemnation ; and this guilt unto condemnation which came upon all, was ¿évòs of one person, or sin. This is the order of things on the part of Adam : (1.) lapártwua, the one sin. (2.) Kpiua, the guilt that thereon ensued unto all. (3.) Karákorua, the condemnation which that guilt deserved. And their "antitheta' or opposites in the second Adam, are (1.) Xápioua, the free donation of God. (2.) Aúpnua, the gift of grace itself, or the righteousness of Christ. (3.) Aralwua or dekalwois Swñs, 'justification of life.' But yet though the apostle doth thus distinguish these things, to illustrate his comparison and opposition, yet that which he intends by them all, is the righteousness and obedience of Christ, as he declares ver. 18, 19. This in the matter of our justification, he (l.) calleth Xápioua with respect unto the free gratuitous grant of it by the grace of God, Awped, rñc xápiros; and (2.) Aúpnua, with respect unto us who receive it. A free gift it is unto us; and (3.) Alkaiwma, with respect unto its effect of making us righteous.

Whereas, therefore, by the sin of Adam imputed unto them, guilt came on all men unto condemnation, we must inquire, wherein the free gift was otherwise. Not as by one that sinned, so was the gift. And it was so in two things : for, 1. Condemnation came upon all by one offence. But being under the guilt of that one offence, we contract the guilt of many more innumerable. Wherefore, if the free gift had respect only unto that one offence, and intended itself no farther, we could not be delivered; wherefore it is said to be of many offences, that is, of all our sins and trespasses whatever. 2. Adam, and all his posterity in him, were in a state of acceptation with God, and placed in a way of obtaining eternal life and blessedness, wherein God himself would have been their reward. In this estate by the entrance of sin, they lost the favour of God, and incurred the guilt of death or condemnation, for they are the same. But they lost not an immediate right and title unto life and blessedness, For this they had not, nor could have before the course of obedience prescribed unto them, was accomplished. That therefore, which came upon all by the one offence, was the loss of God's favour in the approbation of their present state, and the judgment or guilt of death and condemnation. But an immediate right unto eternal life, by that one sin was not lost. The free gift is not so: for as by it we are freed, not only from one sin, but from all our sins, so also by it we have a right and title unto eternal life. For therein grace reigns through righteousness unto eternal life;'

ver. 22.

The same truth is farther explained and confirmed, ver. 17. * For if by one man's offence death reigned by one, much more they which receive abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life by one Jesus Christ.' The design of the apostle having been sufficiently manifested in our observations on the former verses, I shall from this only observe those things which more immediately concern our present subject. And, 1. It is worth observation, with what variety of expressions the apostle sets forth the grace of God in the justification of believers. Alkalwua, δώρημα, χάρις, χάρισμα, περισσεία χάριτος, δωρεά της δικαιοσύνης. Nothing is omitted that may any way express the freedom, sufficiency, and efficacy of grace unto that end. And although these terms seem some of them to be coincident in their signification, and to be used by him promiscuously, yet do they every one include something that is peculiar, and all of them set forth the whole work of grace. Aukalwua seems to me, to be used in this argument for dikacolóynua, which is the foundation of a cause in trial, the matter pleaded, whereon the person tried is to be acquitted and justified. And this is the righteousness of Christ; of one. Aconua, or a free donation, is exclusive of all desert and conditions on our part, who do receive it. And it is that whereby we are freed from condemnation, and have a right unto the justification of life. Xápis is the free grace and favour of God, which is the original or efficient cause of our justification, as was declared, chap. iii. 24. Xápisua hath been explained before. Ilspioosia zápıros, 'the abundance of grace,' is added to secure believers of the certainty of the effect. It is that whereunto nothing is wanting unto our

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