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or all the places which he mentions, should seem doubtful unto any (as it doth not unto me), that the uncertainty of a very few places, should not make us question the proper signification of a word, whose sense is determined in so many, wherein it is clear and unquestionable. The first place he mentioneth, is that of the apostle Paul himself, Rom. viii. 30. 'Moreover, whom he did predestinate, them he also called ; and whom he called, them he also justified, and whom he justified, them he also glorified. The reason whereby he pleads that by justified in this place, an internal work of inherent holiness in them that are predestinated is designed, is this and no other. It is not,' saith he, likely that the holy apostle in this enumeration of gracious privileges, would omit the mention of our sanctification, by which
are freed from the service of sin, and adorned with true internal holiness and righteousness. But this is utterly omitted, if it be not comprised under the name and title of being justified; for it is absurd with some, to refer it unto the head of glorification.'
Ans. 1. The grace of sanctification, whereby our natures are spiritually washed, purified, and endowed with a principle of life, holiness and obedience unto God, is a privilege unquestionably great and excellent, and without which none can be saved. Of the same nature also is our redemption by the blood of Christ. And both these doth this apostle in other places without number, declare, commend, and insist upon. But that he ought to have introduced the mention of them, or either of them in this place, seeing he hath not done so, I dare not judge.
2. If our sanctification be included or intended in any of the privileges here expressed, there is none of them, predestination only excepted, but it is more probably to be reduced unto, than unto that of being justified. Indeed, in vocation it seems to be included expressly. For whereas, it is effectual vocation that is intended, wherein a holy principle of spiritual life, or faith itself is communicated unto us, our sanctification radically, and, as the effect in its adequate immediate cause, is contained in it. Hence, we are said to be called to be saints,' Rom. i. 7. which is the same with being'sanctified in Christ Jesus;' 1 Cor. i. 2. And in many other places is sanctification included in vocation. 3. Whereas our sanctification, in the infusion of a principle of spiritual life, and the actings of it unto an increase in duties of holiness, righteousness and obedience, is that, whereby we are made meet for glory, and is of the same nature essentially with glory itself, whence its advances in us, are said to be from glory to glory,' 2 Cor. iii. 18. and glory itself is called the 'grace of life;' 1 Pet. iii. 7. it is much more properly expressed by our being glorified, than by being justified, which is a privilege quite of another nature, However, it is evident, that there is no reason why we should depart from the general use and signification of the word, no circumstance in the text compelling us so to do.
The next place that he gives up unto this signification is, 1 Cor. vi. 11. • Such were some of you; but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.' That by justification here, the infusion of an inherent principle of grace making us inherently righteous, is intended, he endeavoureth to prove by three reasons: 1. Because justification is here ascribed unto the Holy Ghost; Ye are justified by the Spirit of our God. But to renew us is the proper work of the Holy Spirit.' 2. It is manifest,' he says, ' that by justification, the apostle doth signify some change in the Corinthians, whereby they ceased to be what they were before. For they were fornicators and drunkards, such as could not inherit the kingdom of God, but now were changed, which proves a real inherent work of grace, to be intended. 3. If justification here signify nothing, but to be absolved from the punishment of sin, then the reasoning of the apostle will be infirm and frigid. For after he hath said that which is greater, as heightening of it, he addeth the less : for it is more to be washed, than merely to be freed from the punishment of sin.'
Ans. 1. All these reasons prove not, that it is the same to be sanctified and to be justified, which must be, if that be the sense of the latter, which is here pleaded for. But the apostle makes an express distinction between them, and as this author observes, proceeds from one to another by an ascent from the lesser to the greater. And the infusion of a habit or principle of grace, or righteousness evangelical,
whereby we are inherently righteous, by which he explains our being justified in this place, is our sanctification and nothing else. Yea, and sanctification is here distinguished from washing; but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified ;' 80 as that it peculiarly in this place denotes positive habits of grace
and holiness: neither can he declare the nature of it, any way different from what he would have expressed by, being justified.
2. Justification is ascribed unto the Spirit of God, as the principal efficient cause of the application of the grace of God and blood of Christ, whereby we are justified unto our souls and consciences. And he is so also of the operation of that faith whereby we are justified; whence, although we are said to be justified by him, yet it doth not follow that our justification consists in the renovation of our natures.
3. The change and mutation that was made in these Corinthians, so far as it was physical in effects inherent (as such there was), the apostle expressly ascribes unto their washing and sanctification; so that there is no need to suppose this change to be expressed by their being justified. And in the real change asserted, that is, in the renovation of our natures, consists the true entire work and nature of our sanctification. But whereas by reason of the vicious habits and practices mentioned, they were in a state of condemnation, and such as had no right unto the kingdom of heaven, they were by their justification changed and transferred out of that state into another, wherein they had peace with God, and right unto life eternal.
4. The third reason proceeds upon a mistake; namely, that to be justified, is only to be freed from the punishment due unto sin.' For it compriseth both the non-imputation of sin, and the imputation of righteousness, with the privilege of adoption and right unto the heavenly inheritance, which are inseparable from it. And although it doth not appear that the apostle in the enumeration of these privileges, did intend a process from the lesser unto the greater; nor is it safe for us to compare the unutterable effects of the grace of God by Christ Jesus, such as sanctification and justification are, and to determine which is greatest, and which is least; yet, following the conduct of the Scripture, and
the due consideration of the things themselves, we may say that in this life we can be made partakers of no greater mercy or privilege, than what consists in our justification. And the reader may see from hence, how impossible it is to produce any one place wherein the words, “justification,' and 'to justify,' do signify a real internal work and physical operation ; in that this learned man, a person of more than ordinary perspicuity, candour and judgment, designing to prove it, insisted on such instances, as give so little countenance unto what he pretended. He adds, Tit. iii. 5—7. .Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according unto his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost; which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour; that being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according unto the hope of eternal life. The argument which he alone insists upon to prove, that by justification here, an infusion of internal grace is intended, is this; that the apostle affirming first, 'that God saved us, according unto his mercy by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost, and afterward affirming that we are justified by his grace, he supposes it necessary, that we should be regenerate and renewed, that we may be justified; and if so, then our justification, contains and compriseth our sanctification also.
Ans. The plain truth is, the apostle speaks not one word of the necessity of our sanctification, or regeneration, or renovation by the Holy Ghost, antecedently unto our justification, a supposition whereof contains the whole force of this argument. Indeed he assigns our regeneration, renovation, and justification, all the means of our salvation, all equally unto grace and mercy, in opposition unto any works of our own, which we shall afterward make use of. Nor is there intimated by him, any order of precedency, or connexion between the things that he mentions, but only between justification and adoption, justification having the priority in order of nature; 'that being justified by his we should be heirs according to the hope of eternal life.' All the things he mentions are inseparable. No man is regenerate or renewed by the Holy Ghost, but withal he is justified. No man is justified, but withal he is renewed by the Holy Ghost. And they are all of them equally of sovereign grace in God in opposition unto any works of righteousness that we have wrought. And we plead for the freedom of God's grace in sanctification, no less than in justification. But that it is necessary that we should be sanctified that we may be justified before God, who justifieth the ungodly, the apostle says not in this place, nor any thing to that purpose; neither yet if he did so, would it at all prove, that the signification of that expression to be justified, is to be sanctified, or to have inherent holiness and righteousness wrought in us. And these testimonies would not have been produced to prove it, wherein these things are so expressly distinguished, but that there are none to be found of more force or evidence.
The last place wherein he grants this signification of the word δικαιόω is Rev. Χxii. 11. ο δίκαιος δικαιοθήτω έτι, qui justus est, justificetur adhuc;' which place is pleaded by all the Romanists. And our author says, they are but few among the Protestants who do not acknowledge that the word cannot be here used in a forensic sense, but that to be justified, is to go on and increase in piety and righteousness.
Ans. But (1.) there is a great objection lies in the way of any argument from these words ; namely, from the various reading of the place. For many ancient copies read not ó dikaios dikaioOntw čri, which the Vulgar renders “justificetur adhuc,' but dikaiosúvnu troinoátw tri, 'Let him that is righteous work righteousness still,' as doth the printed copy which now lieth before me. So it was in the copy of the Complutensian edition, which Stephens commends above all others; and in one more ancient copy that he used. So it is in the Syriac and Arabic published by Huterus, and in our own Polyglot. So Cyprian reads the words • de bono patientiæ ; justus autem adhuc justiora faciat, similiter et qui sanctus sanctiora.' And I doubt not but that it is the true reading of the place; dikatoOntw being supplied by some to comply with aylaontw that ensues. And this phrase of dekaloobvNv roceTv is peculiar unto this apostle, being nowhere used in the New Testament (nor it may be in any other author), but by him. And he useth it expressly, 1 Epist. ii. 29. and chap. iii. 7. where those words, ó tov dekaloguvnv, díkaiós toti, do plainly contain what is here expressed.