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tongue of the lower classes, which can, for the chief part, produce proofs of legitimate origin ;-—about the same number, in short, of authorized words that are admitted into Todd's edition of Johnson's Dictionary. Besides these, and the private compilations made by individuals in the course of their miscellaneous reading, there are some very copious early English Vocabularies lying in manuscript in the cathedral libraries of Durham, Winchester, and Canterbury; in the British Museum, King's College, and other depositories, deserving collection; as well as rare lexicographical volumes, which issued from the press in the infancy of typography. We more particularly allude to the Promptuarium Parvulorum, the first of the series that was executed, the Ortus Vocabulorum, the Medulla Grammatice, the Gemma Gemmarum, and Horman's Vulgaria. The original intention of these works was to introduce the youthful scholar to a knowledge of Latin; but so completely changed have become the wants and pursuits of later generations, that the same streams of knowledge would only, at the present day, be frequented to allay the thirst of those who, while advanced beyond the rudiments, have partiaily forgotten their maternal language.

America presents the extraordinary anomaly of a vast population descended from an Anglo-Saxon stock, without having retained any portion of the dialects of the mother country. This must undoubtedly be attributed to the frequent removals of the colonists from one place to another; and to the gradual amalgamation of the new emigrants with the previous settlers. Whilst, however, we assert that the Americans have no dialect, they have formed many new words; and to some old ones still used in England they have affixed new significations; whilst again they have retained others that have long since become obsolete. If the conversation of the Channel Islanders is examined, anomalies of a different character will be observed; for whilst the French of Guernsey, Jersey, Herm, Alderney, and Sark, varies considerably, the English spoken on these islands respectively is strongly tinctured with Hibernianism. They are mutually anxious to rid themselves of the imputation; yet it must be confessed, that though all of them, more or less, partake of it, the language of Jersey lies decidedly the most open to criticism. This leads us to notice a singular fact with respect to the language of the Isle of Man. Even in this contracted spot dialect has become engrafted; since we find the inhabitants of the northern side of the island speaking Manks with much more purity than those of their countrymen living on the opposite shores, whose language is greatly corrupted through their intercourse with England.

Welsh is not spoken any where, at the present time, with purity; but it is frequently written with purity in North and South Wales, though with differences in its words and idiom rather than in its construction. Its grammatical constitution is preserved with tolerable accuracy in conversation, but with a great mixture of English, or Welshified English, words. However, whether written or spoken, the whole language is comparatively modern in prose; the ancient, and it is acknowledged to be the more correct and pure, language, is intelligible only to the highly educated Cambrian. In passing through the same space in any English county that the traveller might do from Aberdaron to Aberconway, å striking difference might be perceived in the accent or intonation of the inhabitants; in North Wales the case is quite the contrary, there being scarcely the least change in the pronunciation between these two extreme points of Carnarvonshire. Aberdaron is indeed reputed by the Cambro-British as the Bæotia of the principality; and its inhabitants seem to have cherished their native tongue with the same degree of regard as their Grecian prototypes. It must, notwithstanding, be admitted, that there is some gradation in the sound of the vowel a, which approaches more to aw in Anglesey than it does in the vale of Clwyd, or on the mountain range of Arfon. There is also an exception to be made regarding that part of Carnarvonshire which includes Bethgelert, where the dialogue undergoes a material change in conformity with that of Merion and Montgomery—the distinguishing mark of which is that of transmuting the a into e, similar to what takes place in the sound of a in the English words, all and ale. In crossing a mountain stream dividing the counties of Montgomery and Cardigan, a variation is immediately perceptible in the tone and dialect of the inhabitants, chiefly discernible in the vowels, particularly in y, and also in the vulgar addition of o, at the end of many words ; which gives to the South Walian dialect the same apparent analogy that modern Italian bears to Latin.

It might be supposed, from the contiguity of Shropshire to the Principality, that the dialect of the North Welsh Borders would naturally partake of Cambro-British, as Romaic does of Albanian and Venetian, or as the brogue of Dublin does of the language of Somersetshire, or the language of the Shetlanders of Norwegian, or the ancient Cornish of Brettonne; but the Reverend Mr Hartshorne informs us, in the introduction to his Glossary, that it is not the least remarkable feature in the dialect of Powisland, that it should have borrowed scarcely any words immediately from the adjoining territory; and he infers from this that the language of his countrymen is marked by extreme correctness. He states that Welsh has never incorporated itself in the least degree with their provincialisms; and that nothing like a Cambro-British patois, or Anglo-Welsh idiom, can be detected. As a vehicle of scientific truth, the English language has an important function to discharge throughout the civilized parts of the world; and could its phraseology be constructed on a basis common to other nations pursuing the same arts and sciences, the nomenclature would be divested of much of that variety which at present helps to bewilder and confuse the philosophic enquirer. The Germans have shown that something of the kind may be effected; but few languages inherently possess the flexibility and adaptation of the Germans. The project may, therefore, be stated as hopeless. But in propagating the doctrines of religion, in recommending moral literature, or works of an imaginative cast, the case is different. For here the author, when wishing to awaken emotion, begins by recalling images that are homeborn and paternal-uttering household and familiar expressions, enlisting the sympathies, by connecting therewith the past events of childhood with the days of untutored idleness, or with local impressions. No allusion can be too simple—no expression too colloquial. The words dictated by nature will always win the readiest access to the affections. And what is the character of our countrymen? Why, the more numerous class, especially of colonists, is agricultural ; and these persons are beginning generally to read, to enquire, and to seek out knowledge for themselves. To them the raciness and force of Saxon English is intelligible; it is, in fact, a precious boon. It has, we think, been fairly shown, that our Continental neighbours have found provincial etymology a walk of much interest, nay, one full of instruction and amusement; and we shall be extremely glad if persons, similarly qualified, will condescend to turn up our English subsoil-anticipating from their labours, as we have ample reason to do, no trivial additions to our vernacular treasures.

ART. VI.-1. Personal Observations on Sindh: The Manners and

Customs of its Inhabitants, and its productive Capabilities.
With a Sketch of its History, and a Narrative of Recent
Events. By T. Postans, Captain, Bombay Army. 8vo.

London : 1843. 2. Correspondence relative to Scinde, 1838-1843. Presented to

both Houses of Parliament by command of her Majesty.

Folio. 1843. 3. Supplementary Correspondence relative to Scinde. Presented

to Parliament, 1844. 4. Speeches of Mr Sullivan and Captain Eastwick at the India

House. 8vo. London : 1844.

Every one, we presume, knows by this time where to look

for Scinde upon the map of Asia. As we proceed from east to west along the southern part of the continent, through a succession of Mahomedan nations, Scinde is the last country where the faith of the Prophet is the religion of the great majority of the inhabitants; for when we cross the sandy desert which separates Scinde from Hindostan, we have arrived in that other half of the Eastern world where Brahma and Buddha are predominant. The result of this situation upon the borders of India, is a colony of Hindoo merchants and shopkeepers among the Scindians, who are otherwise exclusively Mahomedan. This colony is variously stated at three-tenths and one-tenth of the whole population of the country. It is true the population of Scinde, in common with its government, was once Hindoo; but neither appear

to have remained so later than the thirteenth century. The immigration of new inhabitants, and the emigration or conversion of the old, seem about that period to have so completely changed the character of the community, that it owes its present members of the Hindoo persuasion rather to its geographical position than to its early history and origin.

On the north of Scinde there is no such barrier as the Great Desert, and its visitors from that quarter have been something more than commercial adventurers. The Scythians and White Huns, in early times—then the Arabs, Patans, and Moguls--and lastly, the Persians of Nadir Shah, and the Affghans of Ahmed Shah Dooraunee, the grandfather of Shah Shoojah, either held Scinde and collected its revenues by garrisons of their own, or exacted a tributary allegiance from the local hereditary government. To what extent a proper Scindian administration existed under the earlier invaders, we have no means of ascertaining. But for about a century prior to the battle of Meeanee, Scinde had possessed a local government deserving to be called national, which had survived those more powerful empires, of which, one after another, it was compelled to profess itself a part; so that at last, during the thirty years preceding 1838, it had found itself independent, by outliving them all. We turn to the west for the explanation of this circumstance.

Nothing but a low range of hills divides the rich valley of the Indus from the sterile and stony tract which extends, under the name of Beloochistan, nearly to the Persian gulf. Large immigrations into Scinde of the independent and warlike, though pastoral tribes, called Beloochy, which people and give their name to that extensive region, appear to have taken place from time to time-probably beginning from three or four hundred years back; till at length, about the beginning of the last century, these clans were powerful enough to effect the suppression of the old elements of local power; and a Beloochy dynasty, rather by an internal revolution than a foreign conquest, finally established an undisputed authority over the whole of Scinde. The Caloras were at the head of the movement, which thus succeeded, something more than a hundred years ago, in found. ing a dynasty. Fifty years later the Caloras were supplanted by the rival tribe of Talpoors, also Beloochies, who successfully carried on their government down to the year 1838, when their connexion with the British became intimate.

Accordingly, with the exception of the few Hindoos first mentioned, there have appeared to exist, of late years, only two great classes of inhabitants in Scinde; the Beloochy governing class in all its gradations—aristocratic, feudal, and military-and the subject labouring class ; principally composed of Jutis, who are of older date in the country than their superiors, and also of a different race. They appear, indeed, to have held their present position long even before their conversion, centuries ago, to Mahomedanism ; but who have been, nevertheless, more favourably situated in their dependent condition than the cultivators of the soil in some other countries of Asia-inasmuch as the two grand divisions of the Scindians are bound together by at least one great bond of national union, identity of religious faith.

For perspicuity's sake, we have drawn a broad line between the substratum of ancient Jutts and the influx of the more recent Beloochies. The fusion of these two great classes has, however, manifestly begun to take place. Intermarriage goes on: and while on the one hand Jutt families occasionally reach distinc

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