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no explanation, — reads its inner meaning, and tries to utter it. The latter wonders at what he sees, but scrutinizes appearances to find the laws which regulate them. The two processes, imaginative intuition and painful analysis - are distinct, not to be combined in one intellectual act, nor scarcely to coëxist in one mind. The latter does not assert itself till objects pass from the poetic flush of emotion into the colder region of rational insight. Therefore, beyond a few exceptional and isolated facts, there was as yet no English science. But at the close of the sixteenth century the daylight of scientific speculation and experiment had already arisen on the Continent. Memorably, after twenty years' study of the heavens from the window of his garret, Copernicus the Pole founded modern astronomy.

He came to the conclusion, as had Aristarchus in the third century before Christ, that the sun is immovable, while the earth and planets revolve around it. Afraid of public opinion, he refused to publish. Bruno the Italian espoused his theory with ardor, propagated it, as well as the plurality of worlds, with haughty defiance,- and was burned by the Inquisition. The fact survived, soon to effect an important revolution in our conceptions. As long as the globe was believed to be the central object of the universe, and the stars but inconsiderable lights to garnish its firmament, it was assigned a similar position in the moral scheme; and every phenomenon, human and divine, terrestrial and celestial, was supposed to have some bearing upon the acts and history of man. But when this "goodly ball' was seen to be only a moving point

-a mere infinitesimal fraction in creation, human egotism was succeeded by a depressing sense of insignificance, and the way was open for the gradual substitution of the idea of law for that of supernatural intervention.

Every priest in the Cathedral of Pisa, every woman and child at Christmas, saw the great lamps which hung from the ceiling, some by a longer, some by a shorter chain,- saw them swing in the wind that came in with the crowd, as the Christmas-doors, storied all over with mediaval fictions, opened wide; but only Galileo, a student not yet twenty, saw that the motion of the swinging lamps was uniform, and proportional to the length of the chain -- each a great clock whereof he alone had the dial. For five hundred years these lamps, swinging slowly to and fro,

in infinite space

had been virtually proclaiming the law of gravitation, but Galileo was the first who heard it. This was the great principle of the Pendulum. So does genius find general laws in facts which have been familiar to everybody since the world was.

In England, meanwhile, much of the progress abroad probably remained unknown. Various mathematical works were produced in the vernacular in the first half of the century, by William Record, a physician. Says a contemporary:

"He was the first who wrote on arithmetic in English; the first who wrote on geometry in English; the first who introduced algebra into England; the first who wrote on astronomy and the doctrine of the sphere in English; and finally the first Englishman who adopted the system of Copernicus.' He styled the first the Ground of Arts, the second, Pathway to Knowledge; the third, Whetstone of Wit, the fourth, the Castle of Knowledge. In 1599, Thomas Hill published The School of Skill, which is described as “an account of the heavens and the surface of the earth, replete with those notions on astrology and physics which are not very common in the works of Record.' The author refers to the scheme of Pythagoras and Copernicus, by which, as he expresses it, they took the earth from the middle of the world, and placed it in a peculiar orb.' He adds:

'But overpassing such reasons, lest by the newness of the arguments they may offend or trouble young students in the art, we therefore (by truc knowledge of the wise) do attribute the middle seat of the world to the earth, and appoint it the centre of the whole.' Gilbert's hook On Magnetism (1600) marks the origin of the modern science of electricity. Medicine was practiced and taught on the revised principles of the ancients. Henry VIII incorporated the College of Physicians in 1518. From the time of Edward the Confessor, the power of kings to touch for the King's Evil seems never to have been doubted, and to have been extensively exercised. The Breviary of Ilealth, by Andrew Borde (1547), is a curious suggestion of the state of medical science. It has a prologue addressed to physicians, beginning:

*Egregious doctors, and masters of the eximions and arcane science of physick, of your urbanity exasperate not yourselves against me for making this little volume.' The 'volume' treats not only of bodily disease, but of mental, as in the 174 Chapter,' which doth shewe of an infirmitie named Hereos':

preos is the Greke w le. In

it named A

English it is named Love-sick, and women may hane this fickleness as well as men. Young persons be much troubled with this impediment.'

The following is the remedy prescribed:

"First I do advertize every person not to set to the heart what another doth set to the hele. Let no man set his love so far, but that he may withdraw it betime; and muse not, but use mrth and mery company and be wysc, and not foolish.'

for reason.

Philosophy.-So far as it concerns the history of philosophy, the Renaissance meant the revival of Platonism and the insurgence against scholastic antiquity. Never had monarch been so nearly universal and absolute as Aristotle. For two thousand years he had dictated to the nations what to believe. Amid all the commotions of Empire and the war of words, he had kept his throne and state, unshaken and undisturbed. His autocratical edict was placed by the side of the Gospel. His ten categories, which pretend to classify every object of human apprehension, were held as another Revelation. Universities were his sentinels. Parliaments issued decrees banishing those who maintained theses against him. His name was a synonym

To contradict him was to contradict the Church, whose integrity was based on the immovable conformity of all human opinions. In vain did Galileo try to convince the learned of Pisa that bodies of unequal weight, dropped from the same height, would reach the ground in equal times. They saw the weights fall from the top of the tower, saw them strike the ground simultaneously; but they would not believe, for Aristotle had said that a ten-pound weight would fall ten times as fast as a one-pound weight. A student, having detected spots in the sun, communicated his discovery to a worthy priest, who replied:

*My son, I have read Aristotle many times, and I assure you there is nothing of the kind mentioned by him. Go rest in peace; and be certain that the spots which you have seen arc in your eyes, and not in the sun.' But early in the sixteenth century revolt had broken forth, in Italy, in Spain, in France, in Germany, even in England. In 1535, a royal commission abolished from the two universities the works of the famous Duns Scotus. Said the report, in a tone of triumph: “We have set Dunce in Bocardo,' and have utterly banished him from Oxford forever, with all his blind glosses.' In 1583, Bruno, a lionized foreigner, a knight-errant of truth, opened under the patronage of Elizabeth, a public disputation, in which he combated the Aristotelians with stirring cloquence.

? A figure of syllogism terminating in a negative conclusion, and implying therefore

annihilation.

He styled the wise conclave of his opponents 'a constellation of pedants, whose ignorance, presumption, and rustic rudeness would have exhausted the patience of Job.' To all the reformers, however various their doctrines, one spirit seems to have been common,- unhesitating opposition to the dominant authority. Each in his own way, the new generation were emancipating themselves from the dogmas of the ancient dictator. Scholasticism, majestic in its decay, was fast losing its hold upon the mind of the age. As yet, however, there was nothing better to accept in its stead. Being the whole philosophy, mental and physical, then taught, its abolition from the academical course was tantamount to the ejection of philosophical studies entirely. So it happens that all departments - physics, metaphysics, and ethics — were alike barren. Materials were at hand, indeed, for the most successful research; but there was need of an instructor, an organizer, who should reduce to form and method the discordant elements, and cut, as it were, a new channel in which the philosophic spirit of the world should flow.

Résumé.—The feudal system, worn out and vicious, unable to give to a general society either security or progress, disappears; and European society passes from the dominion of spiritual to that of temporal governments, in which the essential fact is centralization of power. A new and remarkable species of politicians appears - the first generation of professional statesmen, all laymen, all cultured, all men of peace, who direct the politics of England dexterously, resolutely, gloriously. The nobles cease to be military chieftains, the priests cease to possess a monopoly of learning. Chivalry, no longer a controlling institution, has been refined of its grossness, and retaining only its beauty, gives color and flavor to society, and tinctures strongly poetic sentiment. Literature proper still belongs almost exclusively to the upper classes, but these are being greatly increased by additions of rich citizens, who are growing up to be the body of the nation. Vestiges of slavery still exist, yeomen lead a coarse and brutish life, vagrancy and crime are inadequately suppressed by severe laws unequally administered. Language reaches its full stature, strong, flexible, and copious; adequate to the needs of philosophic thought and of deep and varied feeling The aroused spirit of travel and adventure brings races

face to face, widens the sphere of human interest, and by its revelations gives life and richness to the imagination. The Reformation, connected on the one side with scholarship, unlocks the sealed treasures of the Bible, and opens the path for modern biblical criticism; connected on the other with intolerance of mere authority, it leads to what has been termed rationalism—the attempt to define the laws which underlie the religious consciousness; connected with politics, it is linked historically with the approaching Revolution. The veil woven by human hands across the brightness of Christianity is rent asunder, and a new meaning is given to the words: "God is a spirit; and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.' The Renaissance achieves the discovery of the world and of man,- the first, the exploration of the globe and the exploration of the heavens; the second, the restoration of Pagan antiquity – man in his temporal relations, and the renovation of faith — man in his spiritual relations. Printing renders indestructible all knowledge, and disseminates all thought. Science, rescued from the hands of alchemy and astrology, takes her incipient steps. Philosophy, sundered from Scholasticism and Aristotle, awaits the principle of order—the law and the lawgiver. Prose, waking larger and richer from its sleep, passes from the elegant simplicity of More to the formal rhetoric of Ascham, and thence from the extravagance of Lily and the Euphuists to the decorated eloquence of Raleigh and Sidney, gaining, by the close of the period, much in copiousness, in sonorousness, in splendor. Poetry, in Skelton an instrument of reform, revives as an art in Surrey, who gives a sweeter movement to English verse, and extends its lyrical range.' In the poems of Spenser are reflected the roseate hues, the higher elements, of the English Renaissance; while its higher and lower alike are reflected in the drama, which is both indigenous and national. In it is directly imaged the whole of English lifecharacter, class, condition, in all their varieties; and the poets who establish it carry in themselves the sentiments which it displays,-happy and abundant feeling, free and full desire, the overflowing of nature, the worship of beauty and of vigor, the energy of pride, the despair of destiny, the insurrection of reason, the turbulence of passion, the brutality of evil lusts, and the

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