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Ordinance of 1787.

ice is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or services as aforesaid.

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, that the casolutions of the 23d of April, 1784, relative to the subject of this ordinance, be, and the same are hereby repealed and declared null and void.

Done by the United States in Congress assembled, the 13th day of July, in the year of our Lord, 1787, and of their sovere gnty and independence the 12th.


WHO WAS THE AUTHOR OF THE ORDINANCE OF 1787" 14"There has been some diversity of opinion as to the individual to whom the honor of the paternity of that document rightfully belongs. Some have claimed it for Mr. Jefferson, though he did not claim it himself. The honor of drafting that instrument, on which the constitutions of all the north western states are founded, belongs of right to Nathan Dane, a revolutionary patriot of Massachusetts. He was its author,-he reported it to Congress and persevered in (xplaining, and impressing it on their attention till they becaice satisfied of its merits and adopted it by a unanimous ote, Mr. Jefferson being in France at the time.”- Burnett's Notes on the North-Western Territory,

pp. 37-8.

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Rutherford Birchard Hayes, nineteenth president of the United States, was born at Delaware, Ohio, October 4, 1822 ; graduated at Kenyon College, Ohio, in 1842, and at Harvard Law School in 1845 ; began the practice of law at Fremont, Ohio; removed to Cincinnati in 1849: was city solicitor from 1858 to 1861 ; was appointed, June 27, 1861, major Twenty-ihird Ohio Volunteers, of which w. S. Rosecrans was the first colonel and Stanley Matthews (afterwards justice U. S. Supreme Court) lieutenant-colonel. He was promoted ieutenant-colonel October 24, 1861, from which date he commanded the Twenty third until December, 1862. In the brilliant action of South Mountain (1862) he received a severe wound in the left arm which compelled him to leave the field. After the battle of Antietam the regiment was returned to West Virginia, where. November 30, 1862, he rejoined it as colonel, having been promoted October 24. He was commissioned brigadier general of volunteers, to date from the battle of Cedar Creek, at the close of which he received news of his election to Congress from the second district of Ohio; was made brevet major-general for gallant services, and resigned from the army June 1, 1865. In December he took his seat in Congress; was re-elected in 1866, but left his seat in 1867, having been uominated for governor of Ohio, to which office he was elected in October and re-elected in 1869. In 1872 he suffered his first defeat for Congress. In 1875 he reluctantly consented to allow his name to be used once more as a candidate for governor, and was elected for a third time, an honor never before conferred on a citizen of Ohio. On June 16, 1876, he was nominated at Cincinnati for president of the United States, on the Republican ticket, on the seventh ballot, receiving 384 votes, to 351 for J. G. Blaine, and 2! for B. H. Bristow. The ensuing canvass, which was bitter and exciting, was closed by a disputed election, the electoral votes of Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and one of those of Oregon being claimed by both parties. The Presidential Electoral Commission announced, March 2, 1877, that he had been duly elected president of the United States. The inauguration ceremonies took place on March 5. During the four years of his oftice the affairs of the government were conducted in a manner that will command the favorable judgment of history. Died at Fremont, Ohio, January 17, 1893.


[Recommended to the Congress ly a constitutional convention, of which George Washington was President, on the 17th day of September, 1787, and transmitted to the several states for ratitication on the 28th day of the same month. On the fourth of March, 1789, the day which had been fixed for commencing operations of Government under the new (onstitution, it had been ratified by the conventions chosen in each state to consider it, as follows: Delaware, December 7, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Connecticut, January 9, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788; Virginia, June 26,1788; and New York, July 26, 1788.

Rhode Island ratifie l.the constitution on the 29th of May, and North Carolina on the 21st of November, 1759. Verinont, then an applicant for admission to statehooil, ratified the constitution on the 10th day of January, 1791, and was admitted into the Union ou the 18th day of February following.)


E the People of the United States, in order to form a more

perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquil

ity, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I. SECTION 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and IIouse of Representatives.

Section 2. (1) The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the soveral States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

2. No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

3. *[Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, Which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years and excluding Indians not taxed, threefifths of all other Persons.] The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the

*It will be observed that the original document has been carefully followed as to spelling, the use of capital letters, etc.

*The clause included in brackets is amended by he 14th amendment, second section.

The Constitution of the United States.

United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such

[anner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every Thirty thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

4. Then vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such vacancies.

5. The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Sec. 3. (1) The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one-third may be chosen every second Year; and if vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

3. No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

5. The Senate shall chuse their Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

6. The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

The Constitution of the United States.

7. Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

SECTION 4. (1) The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different day.

SECTION 5. (1) Each House shall be the Judge of Elections, Returns, and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties, as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

3. Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

4. Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, with. out the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

SECTION 6. (1) The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, bo privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and

3 B. A.

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