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rest, having on its right the seal of the Count de Meurs, and on its left that of Diedrich van Eyl. The insignium borne by the knights of this order on the left side of their mantles consisted of a Fool, embroidered in a red and silver vest, with a cap on his head, intersected barlequinwise with red and yellow divisions and gold bells attached, with yellow stockings and black shoes : in his right hand was a cup filled with fruits, and in his left a gold key, symbolic of the affection subsisting between the different members.”
Patent of Creation of the Order of Fools." We all, who have hereunto affixed our seals, make known unto all men, and declare, that after full and mature consideration, both on our own behalf and on account of the singular goodwill and friendship which we all bear, and will continue to bear towards one another, we have instituted a society of Fools, according to the form and manner hereunto subjoined:
“ Be it therefore known, that each member shall wear a a fool, either made of silver or embroidered on his coat. And such member as shall not daily wear this fool, him shall and may any one of us, as often as he shall see it, punish with a mulct of three old great tournois, livres tournois, about fourpence halfpenny, which three tournois shall be appropriated to the relief of the poor in the Lord !
“ Further, will we Fools yearly meet, and hold a conventicle and court, and assemble ourselves, to wit at Cleves, every year on the Sunday after Michaelmas Day; and no one of us shall depart out of the city, nor mount his horse to quit the place where we may be met together, without previous notice, and his having defrayed that part of the expenses of the court which he is bound to bear. “And none of us shall remain away on any pretence or for any other reason whatsoever than this, namely, that he is labouring under very great infirmity; excepting moreover those only who may be in a foreign country, and at six days' journey from their customary place of residence. If it should happen that any one of the society is at enmity with another, then must the whole society use their utmost endeavours to adjust their differences and reconcile them; and such members and all their abettors shall be excluded from appearing at the court on the Friday morning when it commences its sitting at sunrise, until it breaks up on the same Friday at sunset.
“ And we will further at the royal court yearly elect one of the members to be king of our society, and six to be counsellors; which king with his six counsellors shall regulate and settle all the concerns of the society, and in particular appoint and affix the court of the ensuing year; they shall also procure, and cause to be procured, all things necessary
for the said court, of which they shall keep an exact account. These expenses shall be alike both to knights and squires, and a third part more shall fall upon the lords than upon the knights and squires; but the counts shall be subject to a third part more than the lords.
“ And early on the Tuesday morning, during the period of the court's sitting, all of us members shall go to the church of the Holy Virgin at Cleves, to pray for the repose of all those of the society who may have died; and there shall each bring his separate offering.
“ And each of us has mutually pledged his good faith, and solemnly engaged to fulfil faithfully, undeviatingly, and inviolably, all things which are above enumerated, &c.
“Done at Cleves, 1331, on the day of St. Cunibert.”
Nobember 13. St. Homobonus Confessor. St. Didacus
Confessor. St. Stanislas Kostka Confessor. St. Mitrius Martyr. St. Brice Bishop and Confessor. St. Constant Priest in Ireland. St. Chillen or Kilian of Ireland Priest.
IDUS.- Pithoegia. Lectisternia.-Rom. Cal. The festival of the Pithoegia seems never to have been explained in any modern works. It was in fact a feast derived from the Greeks, being the first day of their Avfesopia, a feast of Bacchus, on which they tapped their barrels, and thence called by them II.goryla. Potter mentions it among many interesting particulars of the religion of Greece in his Antiquities, vol. i. p. 423, and he says that the Chaeroneans called the same day Ayatūdaljevos or Day of the Good Genius. This Greek and Roman festival took place in both countries about the 13th of November.
The Lectisternia seems to allude to some festive custom of preparing some bed, perhaps some hymeneal ceremony. We have not seen it explained.
COELUM.—We cannot expect any great difference in the weather between the first week in November and this time. It is generally gloomy, or else windy with showers, which continue to beat off the leaves now seen flying in the air sometimes to a great height.
The effect of a whirlblast or sudden gust of wind accompanied with hail, not unfrequent at this season, on the falling leaves, is thus naturally delineated by the mountain poet Wordsworth:
But see! where'er the hailstones drop,
There's not a breeze-no breath of air-
Were dancing to the minstrelsy. CHRONOLOGY.—Died to day in the year 1690 George Fox, renowned as being the founder of the Society of Friends vulgarly called Quakers. Though an illiterate man, he was not deficient in good natural abilities, and was particularly conversant in the language of the scriptures. Of his piety, sincerity, and purity of intention, he afforded throughout bis laborious life abundant evidence. His imagination, however, was too fervid and visionary; and, at the opening of his career, led him into extravagancies which were not only highly indecorous, but a species of that intolerance under which be was himself so grievous a sufferer. He afterward restrained his outrageous zeal, and proved a peaceful teacher of what he conceived to be dictated by the inward light of Christ within him; and was deservedly the object of commiseration for the shameful sufferings and persecutions by which he was harassed by pretended Christians, and of praise for the fortitude and patience with which he endured them. It was at Derhy that the denomination of Quakers was first applied to Fox and to his followers as a term of scorn; either on account of the great agitation and trembling with which the delivery of his addresses is said to have been usually attended, or because that, when brought before the magistrates, he exhorted them, and the others present, to tremble at the name of the Lord. The French call this Society Les Trembleurs for a similar reason.
The Friends appear to be a people but little known, and whose principles seem to have been misunderstood and grossly misstated. We recommend those who would wish to become acquainted with their real principles and character to peruse Tuke's Principles of the Society called Quakers, 12mo. York, 1814; and Clarkson's Portraiture of Quakers, 3 vols. London, 1809.
“The two first prominent features which strike us in this society is, that the Friends are a body of Christians professing equality and having no priests, and who make the letter of the law of Jesus Christ the groundwork of their practice. They are free too from the gross inconsistencies which belong to many other sects, and particularly from the glaring iniquity of warfare. While other sects endeavoured to propagate the religion of peace under the bloodstained banners of a crusade, and secured it from innovation by the dread of the bonfire or the dungeons and tortures of the Inquisition, the Quakers extended the empire of Christianity by the persuasive example of an honest life, and by collectively and individually opposing every encroachment on the liberties and equal rights of men, of which their stedfast conduct in contributing to effect the abolition of the African
Slave Trade, and their present ceaseless efforts to abolish the slavery which still exists in the West Indies, may be adduced as prominent examples. Pensylvania too is an instance of a colony established by a friendly intercourse with the natives without bribery, conquest, or bloodshed.
“ However narrowminded some individuals in the society may be, the principles of the Friends seem to be
unexceptionably the most liberal in the world. Though strict in the observance of their own rites, and tenacious of their peculiar opinions, they are so far from excluding those from Paradise who differ in opinion, that one of their fundamental doctrines seems to rest on the universality of the gift of the Holy Spirit to all men, and they regard it as being
the same as is described in Scripture as an universal and saving light, that lighteth every man that cometh into the world. We de signate the same thing by the term conscience, the inward monitor, the director of good actions. This conscience, however, must be instructed, and the Friends do not implicitly obey the dictates of any natural feeling, but lay stress on the necessity of a strict moral and religious education.
“ The modern anatomists have regarded this inward conscience as the physical effects of a particular organ in the brain, just as hope, veneration, faith, and so on, are believed to be by all phrenologists; but this does not seem to us to militate against the idea of its being the spirit, insisted on by the Friends, for God may act by secondary agents. We know nothing of the world, either physical or moral, but by means of organs which are the living conditions and medium of the mutual influence of matter and spirit. To us it seems that a philosopher, in the most extensive sense, may be a Quaker; for we recognize in the doctrine of the Friends the universal operation of the good principle on the minds of men, and not the partial administration of the divine favour: hence, according to the Friends, all men of every religion, by duly employing for good purposes their talents and the measure of light given them, may gain in Elysium a state of happiness, and may thus exhibit in another world all those infinite shades and discrepancies of character, though of a yet higher order, which chequer with variety their carthly existence, and for which we may all be undergoing some sort of probationary preparation in this our present life. But after all it is not necessary to go thus far to shew the beauties of the Quaker system, which shines through their dingy outward garb, and a few paramount absurdities. We are far from believing that either virtue or vice belong exclusively to any particular religion or cast on
earth; they are variously distributed throughout all ; and in investigating the excellence of any religious people in particular, the mazes of metaphysical theology are too intricate and too little understood to afford a safe ground. We proceed by a safer method when we point out to public no. tice, what the most unlettered of mankind can comprehend, the tone and consistency of the moral conduct of the Friends as a body from their first commencement to the time that now is; for we then act on a practical rule of universal application laid down for our guidance, that of judging of a good or bad tree by the fruits.”—P. See our November 6.
Those who desire further particulars respecting the Society of Friends, in addition to the two books above referred to, may consult Barclay's Apology for the Quakers, Penn's No Cross no Crown, and the various Yearly Epistles addressed by the meetings to the members of the society.
November 14. St. Laurence Archbishop of Dublin
Confessor. St. Dubricius Bishop and Confessor. CHRONOLOGY.-Henry VIII. secretly married to Anne Boleyne in 1532.
DIANA. - The month of November was said by the ancients to be under the tutelary protection of Diana, and this might possibly be on account of the prevalence of hunting and fieldsports in general during this month. In the calm dark warm days which now often occur, when sounds are heard at a distance, this notion has often suggested itself to us when we have heard the cheerful and lively music of several packs of harriers and of beagles at one time, in full cry, in different directions, as may be often heard in Sussex; and on hearing which we might well say with Shakespeare:
Thy hounds shall make the welkin answer them,
Tempus.-On the Origin of Clocks.
Shakespeare. The clepsydrae or waterclocks seem to be very ancient; but clocks made with wheels and a pendulum, and having a dial and hands to shew the hours, are of more modern date than may be commonly supposed. They are not, however, so modern as Weidler and Chalmers make them, who date their invention from the fifteenth century. An exceedingly learned paper, however, read before the society of Göttingen