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their roots only a little below the surface, should be carefully extirpated from the neighbourhood of the garden.
This is the best time of year for setting Hyacinths, Narcissi, and for the making of beds for Tulips. But such operations require the condition that the weather be fine; they must never be done during the damp and dripping days that we so often have now. We must take the first dry weather after this present time for planting of Bulbous Roots in general.
Nobember 11. St. Martin Bishop and Confessor. St. Mennas Martyr. Another St. Mennas Martyr.
The great St. Martin, the glory of Gaul and the light of the Western Church, was a native of Sabaria in Pannonia.
The festival of Martinmas, or as it has been corrupted Martlemas, was instituted in the year 650. St. Martin was born in Hungary in 316, and was remarkable, from his infancy, for great meekness. He was chosen Bishop of Tours about the year 374, in which office he displayed the most exemplary zeal and piety. He died, beloved and esteemed, at the advanced age of eighty four, about the year 397. Martinmas day was anciently a day of great feasting and revelry, as will appear by some extracts from a little ballad, entitled Martilmasse Day:
It is the day of Matilmasse,
Then farewell ladde and farewell lasse
Before return of Martilmasse. This bishop was once so popular in France, that his feast had an octave, that is, was celebrated a second time in the week following; and it was a rule among his devotees to roast a Goose for the family dinner on the day of his anniversary. A medal has lately been struck in France in commemoration of this laudable custom; on one side of which is embossed a Goose, and on the reverse occurs the word Martinalia.
Diodorus Siculus speaks of the Goose as a regular and favourite diet of Aegyptian kings; and, on several of the monuments constructed by them, priests are represented offering a Goose in sacrifice. Athenaeus mentions the fondness of the Lacedaemonians for the Goose; and the Romans not only valued it as a delicacy, but kept holy Geese at the public expense, in honour of those which saved the capitol. According to Lampridius, Geta gave orders to his cook to serve his dinners in alphabetic order. Today every dish was to begin with an a, and tomorrow with a b; and thus the anser under him had the honour of ushering in every cyclus of repasts.
Alexander Severus commonly dined on chickens; but he added a Goose on solemn occasions, such as the birthday of those worthies whom he honoured with a select veneration. Horace praises the liver of a Goose that has fed on Figs; and Pliny describes a method of swelling it, which he hesitates whether to attribute to Scipio Metellus or to Marcus Seius; but he awards to Messalinus Cotta the indisputable honour of inventing a dish consisting of Goose's feet grilled.
The festival of St. Martin occurring when Geese are in high season, it is always celebrated with a voracity the more eager, as it happens on the eve of the petit carême, when fowls could no longer be presented on the tables of a religious age. A German monk, Martin Schoock, has made it a case of conscience whether, even on the eve of the little Lent, it be allowable to eat Goose : “An liceat Martinalibus anserem comedere?' After having dived into the weedy pool of the casuist's arguments, the delighted devotee emerges with the permission to roast his Goose ; and thus the Goose
came to be a standing dish on Martinmas as well as at Michaelmas. Some persons consider this fowl to be one of the greatest luxuries, while others, greatly preferring the Christmas Turkey to the Martinmass Goose, say of this latter bird :
Nec servaturis vigili capitolia vore,
Cederet anseribus, nec amanti flumina cycno. Dr. Stukeley, in his Itinerary, speaking of Martinsal Hill, observes, “ I take the name of this hill to come from the merriments among the Northern people, called Martinalia, or drinking healths to the memory of St. Martin, practised by our Saxon and Danish ancestors. I doubt not but upon St. Martin's Day or Martinmass, all the young people in the neighbourhood assembled here: as they do now upon the adjacent St. Anne's Hill, upon St. Anne's Day.” A note adds, " St. Martin's Day, in the Norway clogs, is marked with a Goose ; for on that day they always feasted with a roasted Goose: they say, St. Martin, being elected to a bishoprick, hid himself, quasi noluit episcopari, but was discovered by that animal. We have transferred the ceremony to Michaelmas."
The 11t0ixos were celebrated at Athens in November, as is well known, and corresponded to our Martinmas feasts. « Πιθοίγια mense Novembri celebrabantur apud Αthenienses. Plutarch, in 8 Sympos. 10. sicuti nostris temporibus in omni fere Europa undecima Novembris, quae D. Martino dicata
Mercur. var. lect. lib. i. cap. 15. Papatus. 127. Cit. Brand. The learned Moresin tells
Anser Isidi sacer erat. Alex. ab Alex. lib. iii. cap. 12. In papatu autem ea cura est cuidam Gallo omnis commendata. Buling. cap. 34. lib. de Orig. Erron. Cult. Deorum.” p. 12. Cit. Brand.
There are various proverbial lines written on St. Martin's Day: The following epigram is in a Collection, in quarto, intitled, “In Mensium Opera et Donaria Decii Ausonii Magni." We are indebted for it to Ellis' edition of Brand, p. 317:
Mensis, ab antiquis sacra deamque colit.
Devotusque satis ubera fert humeris.
Ébria Martini festa November agit.
Pinguibus interea vescitur Anseribus.
“ In Profesto autem Martini mos est apud Christianos Ansere et Musto liberaliter per singulas fere aedes fruendi. Unde et Martinianus Anser ille appellatur : et Mustum creditur mox sequenti die in Vinum verti.” Miscellanea Menologica, 4to. Francof. excud. N. Bassaeus, 1590.
The vulgar expression of My high Betty Marlin is a corruption of Mihi beate Martine. This being a saint more commonly invoked than many others.
The last line in the foregoing verses reminds us of some lines written by a gentleman on one of the late Bishops of Norwich many years ago forbidding the baking of hot rolls on the sabbath morning :
The Apostles of old
Fed the Sheep of their fold
Down it went without sticking,
No consciences pricking,
But our Bishops today
Go a different way,
They give us cold Rolls
For the good of our souls,
Nobember 12. St. Martin Pope and Martyr. St.
Nilus Anchoret Father of the Church and Confessor. St. Livin Bishop and Martyr. St. Lebwin
CHRONOLOGY.-The Scotch Rebels were defeated near Dunblane in Perthshire in 1715. On the selfsame day they were defeated at Preston in Lancashire. It was in 1715 that General Foster, the proprietor of Bamboro' Castle in Northumberland, was taken after the general defeat of the insurgents, and that fine property confiscated. See an account of it in the Gentleman's Magazine.
Maria Clauduntur usque Idus Marhi.—Rom. Cal. The shutting up of the sea or the cessation of navigation in Winter, in consequence of the danger from wind in early times, before the improvements in naval tactics enabled men to weather the storm, is well known. And its notification today reminds us of the old and descriptive ballad of the Tempest, which we shall therefore subjoin for the amusement of the reader:
Song. The Tempest. Cease, rude Boreas, blustering railer! list' ye landmen all to me; Messmates, hear a brother sailor sing the dangers of the sea: From bounding billows, first in motion, when the distant whirlwinds rise, To the tempest troubled ocean, when the seas contend with skies.
Hark! the boatswain hoarsely bawling, by topsail sheet and halyards stands;
Stultitia.-Order of Fools.-" On St. Cunibert's Day, Adolphus, Count of Cleves, in conjunction with the Count de Meurs and thirtyfive noblemen of Cleves, instituted this order under the appellation of d’Order van't Geeken Gesellschap.' The original patent of creation was formerly preserved in the archives of Cleves, which, however, were totally destroyed by the French revolutionists upon their first irruption into Germany, and the only genuine copy of it which now exists, and of which, for the information of the curious, we have subjoined a translation, is to be found in Von Buggenhagen's Account of the Roman and National Antiquities discovered at Cleves. To this document are affixed thirtysix seals, all imprinted on green wax, with the exception of that of the founder, which is on red wax and in the centre of the