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their roots only a little below the surface, should be carefully extirpated from the neighbourhood of the garden.

This is the best time of year for setting Hyacinths, Narcissi, and for the making of beds for Tulips. But such operations require the condition that the weather be fine; they must never be done during the damp and dripping days that we so often have now. We must take the first dry weather after this present time for planting of Bulbous Roots in general.

Nobember 11. St. Martin Bishop and Confessor. St. Mennas Martyr. Another St. Mennas Martyr.

The great St. Martin, the glory of Gaul and the light of the Western Church, was a native of Sabaria in Pannonia.

The festival of Martinmas, or as it has been corrupted Martlemas, was instituted in the year 650. St. Martin was born in Hungary in 316, and was remarkable, from his infancy, for great meekness. He was chosen Bishop of Tours about the year 374, in which office he displayed the most exemplary zeal and piety. He died, beloved and esteemed, at the advanced age of eighty four, about the year 397. Martinmas day was anciently a day of great feasting and revelry, as will appear by some extracts from a little ballad, entitled Martilmasse Day:

It is the day of Matilmasse,
Cuppes of ale should freelie passe;
What though Wynter has begunne
To push downe the Summer sunne,
To our fire we can betake,
And enjoye the crackling brake,
Never heedinge Wynter's face
On the day of Martilmasse.
Some do the citie now frequent,
Where costlie shows and merriment
Do weare the vaporish eveninge out
With interlude and revellinge rout;
Such as did pleasure Englande's queene,
When here her Royal Grace was seen;
Yet will they not this day let passe,
The merrie day of Martilmasse.
When the dailie sportes be done,
Round the market crosse they runne,
Prentis laddes, and gallant blades,
Dancing with their gamesome maids,
Till the Beadel, stout and sowre,
Shakes his bell, and calls the houre;

Then farewell ladde and farewell lasse
To the merry night of Martilmasse.
Martilmasse shall come againe,
Spite of wind and snow and raine;
But many a strange thing must be done,
Many a cause be lost and won,
Many a tool must leave his pelfe,
Many a worldlinge cheat himselfe,
And many a marvel come to passe,

Before return of Martilmasse. This bishop was once so popular in France, that his feast had an octave, that is, was celebrated a second time in the week following; and it was a rule among his devotees to roast a Goose for the family dinner on the day of his anniversary. A medal has lately been struck in France in commemoration of this laudable custom; on one side of which is embossed a Goose, and on the reverse occurs the word Martinalia.

Diodorus Siculus speaks of the Goose as a regular and favourite diet of Aegyptian kings; and, on several of the monuments constructed by them, priests are represented offering a Goose in sacrifice. Athenaeus mentions the fondness of the Lacedaemonians for the Goose; and the Romans not only valued it as a delicacy, but kept holy Geese at the public expense, in honour of those which saved the capitol. According to Lampridius, Geta gave orders to his cook to serve his dinners in alphabetic order. Today every dish was to begin with an a, and tomorrow with a b; and thus the anser under him had the honour of ushering in every cyclus of repasts.

Alexander Severus commonly dined on chickens; but he added a Goose on solemn occasions, such as the birthday of those worthies whom he honoured with a select veneration. Horace praises the liver of a Goose that has fed on Figs; and Pliny describes a method of swelling it, which he hesitates whether to attribute to Scipio Metellus or to Marcus Seius; but he awards to Messalinus Cotta the indisputable honour of inventing a dish consisting of Goose's feet grilled.

The festival of St. Martin occurring when Geese are in high season, it is always celebrated with a voracity the more eager, as it happens on the eve of the petit carême, when fowls could no longer be presented on the tables of a religious age. A German monk, Martin Schoock, has made it a case of conscience whether, even on the eve of the little Lent, it be allowable to eat Goose : “An liceat Martinalibus anserem comedere?' After having dived into the weedy pool of the casuist's arguments, the delighted devotee emerges with the permission to roast his Goose ; and thus the Goose

came to be a standing dish on Martinmas as well as at Michaelmas. Some persons consider this fowl to be one of the greatest luxuries, while others, greatly preferring the Christmas Turkey to the Martinmass Goose, say of this latter bird :

Nec servaturis vigili capitolia vore,

Cederet anseribus, nec amanti flumina cycno. Dr. Stukeley, in his Itinerary, speaking of Martinsal Hill, observes, “ I take the name of this hill to come from the merriments among the Northern people, called Martinalia, or drinking healths to the memory of St. Martin, practised by our Saxon and Danish ancestors. I doubt not but upon St. Martin's Day or Martinmass, all the young people in the neighbourhood assembled here: as they do now upon the adjacent St. Anne's Hill, upon St. Anne's Day.” A note adds, " St. Martin's Day, in the Norway clogs, is marked with a Goose ; for on that day they always feasted with a roasted Goose: they say, St. Martin, being elected to a bishoprick, hid himself, quasi noluit episcopari, but was discovered by that animal. We have transferred the ceremony to Michaelmas."

The 11t0ixos were celebrated at Athens in November, as is well known, and corresponded to our Martinmas feasts. « Πιθοίγια mense Novembri celebrabantur apud Αthenienses. Plutarch, in 8 Sympos. 10. sicuti nostris temporibus in omni fere Europa undecima Novembris, quae D. Martino dicata

Mercur. var. lect. lib. i. cap. 15. Papatus. 127. Cit. Brand. The learned Moresin tells

us,

Anser Isidi sacer erat. Alex. ab Alex. lib. iii. cap. 12. In papatu autem ea cura est cuidam Gallo omnis commendata. Buling. cap. 34. lib. de Orig. Erron. Cult. Deorum.” p. 12. Cit. Brand.

There are various proverbial lines written on St. Martin's Day: The following epigram is in a Collection, in quarto, intitled, “In Mensium Opera et Donaria Decii Ausonii Magni." We are indebted for it to Ellis' edition of Brand, p. 317:

November 11.
Carbaseo surgens post hunc indutus amictu

Mensis, ab antiquis sacra deamque colit.
A quo vix avidus sistro coinpescitur Anser

Devotusque satis ubera fert humeris.
Also, in another Collection :-

November 11.
Ligna vehit, mactatque boves, et laetus ad ignem

Ébria Martini festa November agit.
Ad postem in Sylvam porcos compellit, et ipse

Pinguibus interea vescitur Anseribus.

“ In Profesto autem Martini mos est apud Christianos Ansere et Musto liberaliter per singulas fere aedes fruendi. Unde et Martinianus Anser ille appellatur : et Mustum creditur mox sequenti die in Vinum verti.” Miscellanea Menologica, 4to. Francof. excud. N. Bassaeus, 1590.

The vulgar expression of My high Betty Marlin is a corruption of Mihi beate Martine. This being a saint more commonly invoked than many others.

The last line in the foregoing verses reminds us of some lines written by a gentleman on one of the late Bishops of Norwich many years ago forbidding the baking of hot rolls on the sabbath morning :

The Apostles of old

Fed the Sheep of their fold
With the Bread of Life hearty and sound,

Down it went without sticking,

No consciences pricking,
No gripes, neither cholic, they found:

But our Bishops today

Go a different way,
On a plan both unjust and forbidden,

They give us cold Rolls

For the good of our souls,
While their own Bread of Life is Plum Pudding !

Nobember 12. St. Martin Pope and Martyr. St.

Nilus Anchoret Father of the Church and Confessor. St. Livin Bishop and Martyr. St. Lebwin

Confessor.

CHRONOLOGY.-The Scotch Rebels were defeated near Dunblane in Perthshire in 1715. On the selfsame day they were defeated at Preston in Lancashire. It was in 1715 that General Foster, the proprietor of Bamboro' Castle in Northumberland, was taken after the general defeat of the insurgents, and that fine property confiscated. See an account of it in the Gentleman's Magazine.

Maria Clauduntur usque Idus Marhi.—Rom. Cal. The shutting up of the sea or the cessation of navigation in Winter, in consequence of the danger from wind in early times, before the improvements in naval tactics enabled men to weather the storm, is well known. And its notification today reminds us of the old and descriptive ballad of the Tempest, which we shall therefore subjoin for the amusement of the reader:

Song. The Tempest. Cease, rude Boreas, blustering railer! list' ye landmen all to me; Messmates, hear a brother sailor sing the dangers of the sea: From bounding billows, first in motion, when the distant whirlwinds rise, To the tempest troubled ocean, when the seas contend with skies.

cry?

Hark! the boatswain hoarsely bawling, by topsail sheet and halyards stands;
Down topgallants, quick, be hawling, down your staysails, hand, boys hand.
Now it freshens, se: the braces, the lee topsail sheets let go;
Luff, hoys, luff, don't make wry faces, up your topsails nimbly clew.
Now all you on downbeds sporting, fondly lock'd 'twixt beauty's arms,
Fresh enjoyment, wanton courting, safe from all but love's alarms,-
Around us roars the tempest louder; think what fears our minds enthrall.
Ilarder yet, it yet blows harder, now again the boatswain's call :
The topsail yards point to the wind, boys, see all clear to reef each course;
Let the foresheet go, don't mind, boys, tho' the weather should be worse.
Fore and aft the spritsailyard get, reef the mizzen, see all clear;
Hands up, each preventure brace set, man the foreyard, cheer, lads, cheer.
Now the dreadful thunder's roaring! peals on peals contending clash!
On our beads fierce rain falls pouring, in our eyes blue light'nings flash.
One wide water all around us, all above but one black sky!
Different deaths at once surround us: hark ! what means yon dreadful
The foremast's gone, cries ev'ry tongue out, o'er the lee, twelve feet 'bove

deck!
A leak beneath the chestree's sprung out! call all hands to clear the wreck.
Quick, the laniards cut to pieces, coine, my hearts, be stout and bold;
Plumb the well, the leak increases, four feet water's in the hold !
While o'er the ship wild waves are beating, we for wives and children mourn:
Alas! from hence there's no retreating, alas ! to them there's no return!
Still the leak is gaining on us, both chain pumps are choked below;
Heaven have mercy here upon us ! only He can save us now!
On the lee beam is the land, boys, let the guns o'erboard be thrown ;
To the pumps come ev'ry hand, boys, see! her mizzenmast is gone.
The leak we've found, it cannot pour fast, we've lightend her a foot or more;
Then up and rig a jury foremast, she's tight, she's tight, boys, wear off sbore.
Now, once more, on joys we're thinking, since kind Fortune sav'd our lives;
Come, the cann, boys, let's be drinking to our sweethearts and our wives.
Fill it up, about ship wheel it; close to the lips the brimmer join :
Where's the tempest now? who feels it? none-our danger's drown'd in wine.

Stultitia.-Order of Fools.-" On St. Cunibert's Day, Adolphus, Count of Cleves, in conjunction with the Count de Meurs and thirtyfive noblemen of Cleves, instituted this order under the appellation of d’Order van't Geeken Gesellschap.' The original patent of creation was formerly preserved in the archives of Cleves, which, however, were totally destroyed by the French revolutionists upon their first irruption into Germany, and the only genuine copy of it which now exists, and of which, for the information of the curious, we have subjoined a translation, is to be found in Von Buggenhagen's Account of the Roman and National Antiquities discovered at Cleves. To this document are affixed thirtysix seals, all imprinted on green wax, with the exception of that of the founder, which is on red wax and in the centre of the

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