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the Greek and Latin churches in the fifth and sixth ages : at Jerusalem as early as the year 335. The recovery of this Holy Rood from the hands of the Infidels in the reign of Heraclius, in the seventh century, was celebrated on the same day, that is September the 14th. In consequence of which the festival of the Invocation, or first discovery of it, was removed by the Roman Church to May 3. This is therefore the day when the recovered cross was exalted by the Christians, whose discovery was celebrated earlier in the year. Hence there are in the Calendar two days to commemorate the sacred wood on which Jesus Christ was crucified. See our May 3d, p. 213, and Butler's Lives, under May 3 and September 14. The history of the wars of the Emperor, and of the recovery of the cross from the Persians, is there related at length, as gathered from the Pascal Chronicle, from Theophanes, from Cedrenus, and from other historians.
The following succinct account may suffice here:-“When St. Helena had discovered the true cross of Christ, various fragments were taken from it and sent to Europe, encased in gold, or set with precious stones; the principal part of the wood remaining with the Bishop of Jerusalem, by whom it was annually exhibited at Easter, until Cosroes, King of Persia, plundered Jerusalem, and seized the holy relic. About the year 615, Heraclius, the Roman Emperor, having attacked and vanquished Cosroes, he resolved to convey the venerated cross to Mount Calvary. Attired in his imperial robes, he endeavoured to remove the relic; but he could not lift the sacred wood from the ground. A voice from heaven explained the mystery. Christ himself had entered Jerusalem, lowly and meek, mounted on an ass, wbile Heraclius had sought to defile the hallowed cross. The emperor instantly disrobed himself, and then, with the utmost facility, conveyed the wood to its appointed place: the identity of the cross being thus ascertained, it was deposited in the Great Church of the Twelve Apostles at Constantinople. This is the legendary narrative of the circumstances that first gave
rise to the festival of the Exaltation of the Cross. The reader will easily separate the true from the fictitious parts.
“ The Holy Rood or Cross, when perfectly made, had not only the image of our Saviour extended upon it, but the figures of the Virgin Mary and St. John, one on each side: in allusion to John, xix. 26-Christ on the Cross saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved standing by.
“ Such was the representation denominated the Rood, usually placed over the screen
which divided the nave from the chancel of our churches. To our ancestors, we are told, it conveyed a full type of the Christian church; the nave
representing the church militant, and the chancel the church triumphant; denoting that all who would go from the one to the other, must pass under the Rood,” that is, carry the cross, and suffer affliction. Previous to the period called the Reformation, we find Church wardens' accounts full of entries respecting the Roodloft. On a detached scrap of paper, Mr. Brand has preserved the following extracts, belonging to that formerly in the church of St. Mary at Hill, 5 Hen. VI.
“ Also for makynge of a peire endentors betwene William Serle, carpenter, and us, for the Rodelofte and the under clerks chambre *, ijs. viijd.”
The second leaf, he observes, of the Churchwardens' accounts, contains the names, it should seem, of those who contributed to the erection of the Roodloft.“ Also ress, of serteyn men for the Rodloft; fyrst of Ric. Goslyn 101.; also of Thomas Raynwall 101. ; also of Rook 2ốs. 7d. ; and eighteen others. Summa totalis 951. 11s. 9d."
The carpenters on this occasion appear to have had, what in modern language is called, “ their Drinks" allowed them, over and above their
wages. “ Also the day after Saint Dunstan, the 19 day of May, two carpenters with her Nonsienst."
In Howes's edition of Stowe's Chronicle, 2 Edw. VI. 1547, we read, “ The 17 of Nov. was begun to be pulled downe the Roode in Paule's Church, with Mary and John, and all other images in the church, and then the like was done in all the churches in London, and so throughout England; and texts of Scripture were written upon the walls of those churches, against images, &c.”- Brand.
Many of our Roodlofts, however, were not taken down till late in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
Wheatley on the Common Prayer, edit. 8vo, Lond. 1741,
* Other entries respecting the Roodloft occur, ibid.
Also payd to 3 carpenters removing the stallis of the quer xxd.
Also payd for eleven dozen pavyng tyles žijs. üüjd." + “Nunchion," s. a colloquial word, a piece of victuals eaten between meals. Hudibras. Ash's Dictionary: The word occurs in Cotgrave's Dictionary: “A Nuncions or Nuncheon, or afternoone's repast, Gouber, gouster, recinè, ressie. To take an afternoone's Nuncheon, reciner, ressiner."
The frequent commutation of liquids, particularly of N and L, has converted this word nowadays into Lancheon.
See Reed's Old Plays, vol. ii. p. 239. See Mr. Ellis's excellent edition of Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p: 280.
The following very curious “Old Wives' Prayer" is found in Herrick's Hesperides, p. 205:
Holy Rood, come forth and shield
September 15. St. Nicetas M. St. Nicomedes M.
St. John the Dwarf Anchoret. St. Achart.
O rises at v. 40'. and sets at vi. 20'.
The Ludi, spoken of today, were the grand Circensian games. Some editions state their lasting five, others only four days. Lemprière, in his Classical Dictionary, gives the following account of them :- The Circenses Ludi were games performed in the Circus at Rome. They were dedicated to the god Consus, and were first established by Romulus at the rape of the Sabines. They were in imitation of the Olympian games among the Greeks, and, by way of eminence, were often called the great games. Their original name was Consualia, and they were first called Circensians by Tarquin the elder, after he had built the Circus. They were not appropriated to one particular exhibition; but were equally celebrated for leaping, wrestling, throwing the quoit and javelin, races on foot as well as in chariots, and boxing. Like the Greeks, the Romans gave the name of Pentathlum or Quinquertium to these five exercises. The celebration continued five days, beginning on the 15th of September. All games in general, that were exhibited in the Circus, were soon after called Circensian games. Some sea fights and skirmishes, called by the Romans Naumachiae, were afterwards exhibited in the Circus. Virg. Aen. 8, v. 636.
The migration of the Swallows noticed today could only allude to their beginning to migrate, which at Rome may be the case, for there these birds arrive near a month sooner than with us.
CHRONOLOGY.-- The first voyage in an Air Balloon was made this day by Vincent Lunardi, who ascended from the Artillery Ground, London, in 1784, and descended in a field near Ware.
FAUNA.- Wasps continue to be very numerous and troublesome, particularly in warm weather; perhaps there is no time of year in which they are more so than the first fortnight of September. The congregations of Swallows and Martins increase, and they alight in thousands on the roofs of houses, and other buildings, previous to their departure.
Coelum.—The weather on an average is at least six times out of seven fine on this day.
On an Autumnal Morn, by Chamberlayne.
It yet is not day;
How full of heaven this solitude appears,
September 16. St. Cornelius Pope and Martyr. St.
Cyprian Bp. M. St. Euphemia Virgin Martyr.
St. Cyprian recorded today was Archbishop of his native city Carthage. He was regarded as the greatest luminary of the third age, and died a martyr in the year 258. The Saint who bears this name, and is recorded in the Almanacks and Protestant Calendars on the 26th of this month, was St. Cyprian surnamed the Magician, who died a martyr in 304.
CHRONOLOGY.-Rouen Cathedral was struck by lightning between four and five this morning in 1822. It is recorded by many as having happened on the 15th, but we were assured, while in the Cathedral in 1823, by the person who showed the building, that it happened on this day. The damage done was very great; the spire on the middle tower was thrown down, being the part struck: its stones tell on the roof, in which they bored very round apertures, and filled the inside of the building with rubbish and confusion. We were informed that Government were going to repair this magnificent Cathedral on the grandest scale, and that a new spire was to be erected of iron, with paratonneres extending to the ground : the height of the whole to the vane from the ground was to be four bundred feet. This Cathedral was founded in 990 by Robert Archbishop of Rouen. A particular account of the height and dimensions of this, and of other Cathedrals, in England and Normandy, will be found in Essays on Gothic Architecture, London, 1808; also in Milner's Gothic Architecture.
. It is astonishing the number of church steeples which we can recount that have been destroyed by lightning. Thus Jove does not seem to spare the temples of the worshippers of Jehovah; but then says the Catholic, we should recollect that in this world God is no respecter of persons--He sendeth his rain on the just and on the unjust. And we must never draw hereby conclusions in favour of scepticism, from effects of whose remote causes we are totally ignorant: what appears to us marvellous, and irreconcileable to our preconceived opinions, may seem wise and good to him who views the whole of his works moving in harmony. Without this consideration, how could we reconcile the destruction of so many material churches by lightning with the miracles continually wrought to uphold the grand spiritual church for whose worship they were constructed. The appearance of a grand Cathedral in ruins reminds one of a celebrated sonnet, and of the account of a modern traveller, who assures us that when he lately visited the fine“ auncient city of Rouen, and its picturesque environs,” he did not fail to perform his early matins in this magnificent structure; and while he paced its " long drawn aisles,” contemplated its " fretted vaults,” “ its richly storied windows," and enjoyed the inspiring "dim, religious, light” of the place, he chanted forth the following exquisite sonnet of Mr. Wordsworth, in which be trusts all his readers will devoutly join, and accord their fervent Amen :
Open your gates, ye everlasting piles !
September 17. St. Lambert Bishop and Martyr.
St. Columba Virgin and Martyr." St. Hildegardis Virgin and Abbess. St. Rouin Abbot. $S. Socrates and Stephen Martyrs.
St. Lambert was Bishop of Utrecht, in the time of King Pepin I.; but, for reproving the king's grandson for his