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The subject of St. Mary Magdalen has always been a favourite one with painters, and some of the most beautiful pictures of the great age of the arts represent her in the most alluring form.

CHRONOLOGY.- Battle of Falkirk in Scotland in 1298. Battle of Angrim in 1691. Battle of Salamanca in 1812.

FLORA.— Roses now begin to fade, and their decaying leaves are scattered about the parterres beneath their shrubs, so that the ancient distich before cited,

Under the 'wanton Rose agen,

That blushes for penitent Magdalen, seems to imply that it blushes when it blooms no more. The fading of the Rose has at all times occasioned a variety of moral sentimentalities with the poets, of which the following beautiful lines of Dessaouls will serve as a sample:

On the fading Rose.
On Julia's brow why fades the Rose,

Late so richly glowing?
Why now the Lily yellow grows

On her fair bosom blowing?
Ah! now the vernal time is o'er,
Spring's gay blossoms smile no more.
Tell me why one loves the Rose

Better while it's fading?
In fancy still why sweeter glows

Its flower in Autunin's shading?
It is because we love the last
Of every thing that's nearly past.
Then heed not memory's magic shell,

While envious hours are fleeting;
Nor on past pleasures fondly dwell,

The present joys unweeting :
“ Enjoy the sweets of Now with me,"
Said Hope," and I will succour thee.”—P.

July 23. St. Bridget? St. Apollinaris Bp. and

Martyr. St. Liborius Bp. C. St. Bridget of Sweden died at Rome, but her body was afterwards translated into Suevia. Her principal festivity is celebrated upon the eighth of October. See the Roman Martyrologe according to the Reformed Calendar translated into English by G. K. of the Society of Jesus, 1627.

In the Diarium Historicum, 4to. Francof. 1590, p. 111, we read, under 23° Julii, “ Emortualis Dies S. Brigittae Reg. Sueciae, 1372.”

Col. Vallancey, in his Essay on the Antiquity of the Irish language, 8vo. Dubl. 1772, p. 21, speaking of Ceres,

tells us,

“ Mr. Rollin thinks this deity was the same Queen of Heaven to whom the Jewish women burnt incense, poured out drink offerings, and made cakes for her with their own hands,” Jerem. c. xvii. v. 18, and adds, “ This pagan custom is still preserved in Ireland on the Eve of St. Bridget, and which was probably transposed to St. Bridget's Eve from the festival of a famed poetess of the same name in the time of paganism. In an ancient Glossary she is described, ' Brigit, a poetess, the daughter of Dagha, a goddess of Ireland. On St. Bridget's Eve every farmer's wife in Ireland makes a cake, called Bairinbreac, the neighbours are invited, the madder of ale and the pipe go round, and the evening concludes with mirth and festivity.”

Yet according to the “ Flowers of the Lives of the most renowned Saincts of the three Kingdoms, England, Scotland, and Ireland, by Hierome Porter, 4to. Doway, 1632," p. 118, Brigitt's Day, Virgin of Kildare, in Ireland, was February the first. Butler registers St. Bridget under Oct. 8, which see,

FAUNA.Salmon fishing is now in season. In the river Thurso in 1744 on this day were caught above 2560 Salmon at one haul, as is recorded in the Gazetteer of Scotland.

Flora.—The Sunflower Helianthus annuus begins to blow, and continues flowering till the end of September, or even later, when it sheds its seeds.

URANIA.— A Table of the Rising, Southing, and Setting of the

Pleiades or Seven Stars, for every Fifth Day in the Year,
being used for finding the Hour of the Night.

Months & Rise South

Days. H. M. H. M.

Sets
II. M.

Months & Rise

Days. H. M.

South
H. M.

Sets H. M.

January 1 0 a 33 8 a 50 5m 7 April.. 1 6 38 2 5511 12 6 0 10 8 28 4 45

6 6 20 2 37 10 54 11|11 m 49 8 6 4 23

11 6 1 2 18/10 95 16 11 28 7 45 4 2

16 5 43 2 0 10 17 21 11 7| 7 24 3 41

215 24 1 41 9 58 26|10 45/ 7 2 3 19

26 5 5 1 22 9 39

Feb. • 110 21 6 38 2 55 | May 11 4 47 1 4 9 21 610 1 6 18 2 35

6 4 28 0 45/ 9.2 11) 9 41) 5 58 2 15

11 4 8 0 25 8 42 16 9 22 5 39 1

36

16 3 48 0 5 8 22 211 9 35 2011 37

21 3 28 11 m 45/ 8 2 26 8 46 5 3 1 20

263 911 267 43

March 11 8 31 4 48 1 5 || June.. 1 2 4411: 117 18 68 13 4 30 0 47

6 % 2410 416 58 11 7 554 12 0 29

111 2 10 21 6 88 16 7 36 3 53 0 10

161 1 45 10 2 6 19 21 7 18 3 35 11 a 52

211 1 221 9391.5 56 261 7 30 3 17 11 34 261 1

2 9 191 5 36

[blocks in formation]

August 1/10 36 6 53 3 10 Nov... 1 4 55 1 12] 9 29 6 10 17 6 34 2 51

6 4 S5 0 52 9 9 11 9 58 6 15 2 32

11 4 150 0 32 8 49 16 9 39 5 56 2 13

16 3 551 0 12 8 29 219 205 S7 1 54

21 3 31|11 a 48| 8 5 26 9 11 5 18 1 35

26 3 10/11 27 7 44

Sept... 1 8 38 4 55 1 12 | Dec... 1 2 47|11 4 7 21 6 8 20 4 37 0 54

6 2 25 10 421 6 59 11 8 2 4 19 0 36

11 2 S 10 201 6 37 167 44 4 1 O 18

16 1 429 591 6 16 2017 27 3 44 0

21 1 2019 37 5 54 2017 9 3 26 11 m 43

261 0 581 9 15 5 32 COELUM.--After a rainy St. Swithin, and a consequent wet Summer, this is usually the time of the most rain and heaviest showers.

On a Wet Summer, by Bamfylde.
All ye who far froin town, in rural hall,

Like me, were wont to dwell near pleasant field,
Enjoying all the sunny day did yield,

With me the change lament, in irksome thrall,
By_rains incessant held; for now no call
From early Cock invites my hand to wield
The scythe. In parlour dim I sit concealed,

And mark the lessening sand from Hourglass fall;
Or 'neath my window view the wistful train

of dripping poultry, whom the Vine's broad leaves
Shelter no more.

Mute is the mournful plain;
Silent the Swallow sits beneath the thatch,

The vacant bind hangs pensive o'er bis hatch,
Counting the frequent drop from reeded eaves.

July 24. St. Lupus. St. Francis Solano. St. Chris

tina V. M. St. Lewini V. M. St. Kinga Virgin, and many others.

CHRONOLOGY.-An attempt made to subdue the Island of Santa Cruz by Admiral Nelson which completely failed in 1797.

TI PUS.-We have explained the Roman Calendar of Julius Caesar at p. 273. For farther elucidation we present the old memorial verses :Quo mense quotae Nonae vel Idus sint, et quo modo Kalendae numerentur.

Prima dies mensis cujusque est dicta Calendae,
Sex Majus Nonas, October, Julius, et Mars :

Quatuor et reliqui. Tenet Idus quilibet octo.
Inde dies alios omneis dic esse Kalendas,

Quas retrò numerans dices à Mense sequenti.
The Reason why a certain Number is assigned to each Daya

Quemque Diem facilè sic dices more Latino;
Si Idus aut Nonas praecedit, deme diei,
De numero in quemcunque cadunt, unumque fac addas:
At si Idus sequitur, ratione hâc utere certâ :
Tolle diem cunctis de Mensis lucibus, bisque
Adde duo; Nurnerus tibi tunc erit ante kalendas.

Pridie at ante illas debet Lux proxima dici.
URANIA.—We shall finish today's reading with a Table of the principal
Elements of the Solar System :

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Jupiter

1 1071

1 3512

1 17919

1 23090000

.... 11:56

14702

0.414

Saturn

9.61

8873

0.428

Uranus

4.26

77.5

The Moon

0.27

27 322

• The mean diameter of the Earth being 7960 miles, and its mean distance from the Sun 95,000,000, the diameters and distances of the other Planets may readily be found, being to that of the Earth as the respective numbers are to a thousand. See our

page 280.

naked eye.

OF THE SATellites OF THE PLANETS; and, firstly,

Of the Satellites of Jupiter 4.-The four satellites of Jupiter, which were discovered by Galileo, may frequently be well seen with a telescope that magnifies 30 or 40 times. The third and fourth have occasionally been seen with the

Astronomers, particularly La Place, have demonstrated certain theorems relating to the planet Jupiter and his satellites, from which it appears that a wonderful provision is made in the system to secure to the planet the benefit of his satellites. When Jupiter is deprived, at the same instant, of the light of the first and second satellites, or of the first and third, the remaining one of the three first cannot possibly be eclipsed at the same time, but is in such a point of its orbit as to give considerable light to the planet.

By means of the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, a method has been obtained for demonstrating that the motion of light is progressive, and not instantaneous, as was formerly supposed : it is found to travel from the Sun to the Earth, that is, ninetyfive millions of miles, in about eight minutes. This discovery, so important to the interests of science, is alluded to in the Excursion of Mallet: speaking of the satellites, it is said,

By these observed the rapid progress finds
Of light itself; how swift the headlong ray
Shoots from the Sun's height through unbounded space,

At once enlightening air, and earth, and heaven. Of the Satellites of Saturn 5.-Of these there are seven, but, being at so great a distance from the Earth, they cannot be seen but by means of an excellent telescope. The sixth and seventh are the smallest of the whole; the first and second are the next smallest ; the third is larger than the first and second; and the fourth is the largest of them all. It is a curious fact, that the fifth satellite surpasses all of them, except the fourth, in brightness, when it is at its western elongation from Saturn; but at other times it is extremely small, and entirely disappears at its eastern elongation. This phenomenon is thought to arise from one part of the satellite being composed of matter less capable of reflecting the light than the rest.

Of the Satellites of Uranus H.- Dr. Herschel also discovered six satellites belonging to this planet, whose periodical revolutions are as follow :

d. h. m. Period of the 1st satellite equal to .. 5 21 25

8 18 0 3d.

10 23 4

... 2d..

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