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According to all accounts the Church of England was, at the beginning of the Reformation, in a most deplorable condition. Bucer says there were hardly ten priests in the country who attempted to preach. Canmer, therefore, invited a number of Reformed theologians to come to England to assist him in his work. The most prominent of these was Peter Martyr (Vermigli), an Italian by birth, who had been a professor at Zurich and Strasburg. He became Professor of Theology at Oxford, where he laboured for some years in the face of the most bitter opposition. He was very active in the work of revising the Book of Common Prayer. On the accession of Queen Mary he returned to Strasburg, and thence to Zurich, where he died in 1562.
vised that the services should be "clean thanks, and reverently presents this and simple, and without pomp." When goblet to Bullinger." Hooper was, in 1550, appointed bishop of Gloucester, he objected to wearing the robes, but Bullinger advised him to accommodate himself in such minor matters to the policy of the Government. The organization of the Church of England, in the reign of Edward VI., was to some extent of the nature of a compromise. There were two parties which it was deemed absolutely import ant to reconcile. One of these held the position of Henry VIII., they de sired to be separated from Rome, but insisted that every peculiarity of the ancient church should be scrupulously preserved. The other was thoroughly Protestant, and would gladly have assimilated the Church of England to the Reformed Churches of the continent. Neither of these parties was quite satis fied with the result of the compromise; but the influence of the former party was most felt in government and worship, and that of the latter in doctrine, as expressed in the confessions of the Church. Bullinger expressed his fears that the two parties would never become thoroughly united, and we need not say that his anticipations have been fully realized.
JOHN DE LASKY.
This distinguished leader of the Reformed Church was a Polish nobleman, and a nephew of the Archbishop of Gnesen. His scholarship was remarkable, and Erasmus calls bim “a soul without a stain." Though he had early When Queen Mary ascended the become converted to Protestantism, be throne, in 1553, the Roman Catholic lingered long before he finally sepaChurch was re established. Nearly three rated from the Established Church; hundred leading Protestants were burn- but when, in 1536, the king of Poland ed at the stake, and thousands of others insisted that he should become a Roman had to flee for their lives. From the Catholic bishop, he made a public prostake Bishop Hooper commended his fession of the Reformed faith, and left bis wife and child to the care of Bullinger, native country. He was the leading and Lady Jane Gray took off her gloves spirit in the Reformed Churches of Noron the scaffold, and requested them to thern Europe. To him, more than to any be sent to the Swiss preacher as a token single individual the Reformed Churches of her affection. At this time Zurich of Poland and Bohemia owe their existwas crowded with English refugees, and ence, and his influence was hardly less the Swiss were put to great straits in extensive in the Netherlands and the entertaining them. After the accession Rhine provinces of Germany. In 1550 of Queen Elizabeth, in 1558, the refu- he went to England, at the invitagees returned to England, and subse- tion of the king, to become the superinquently Bishops Parkhurst, Jewell, and tendent of a number of churches which Hora sent gifts of silver plate in recog- had been founded in London by foreign nition of the kindness shown them by refugees. He was inclined to extreme the Swiss. A silver goblet is still in simplicity of worship, and therefore did existence, bearing a Latin inscription to not agree very well with Cranmer, bur the following effect: "The Church of his influence in Eugland was very extenZurich kindly received the exiles of sive. While in London he published a England during the reign of Mary. cathechism which, says Bartels, was one Elizabeth acknowledges this with of the "ancestors" of the Heidelberg
catechism. The liturgies of the Palatinate and the Netherlands were also in great part derived from him. On the accession of Queen Mary, De Lasky left England with a colony of several hundred persons, who, after many trials, found a refuge in Germany. He died in 1560.
was entirely ignorant of the language. His intercourse was therefore limited to the learned, who spoke Latin, and to the German and French refugees. The climate and mode of living did not agree with him, and his health rapidly declined. He died the 28th of February, 1551, aged 61 years.
formed that the Church of England had adopted the Reformed doctrine of the Lord's Supper. It should also be remembered that, as late as 1618, an English delegation was sent, by the authority of King James I., to the Reformed Synod of Dordrecht in Holland,* and that the Protestant Episcopal Church of England was there fully recognized as an integral part of the Reformed Church.
In the present article we have referred In 1549 this celebrated reformer was to but a few of the members of the called to England to become Professor Reformed Church of Germany and of Theology at Cambridge. Cranmer Switzerland who were prominent in the regarded him as peculiarly qualified to organization of the Church of England. assist him in his work, and in this he We might have mentioned others, such was not mistaken. The two men had as Ochino, Tremellius, and Fagius. For much in common; both were eminently the Church of England we have the qualified to serve as mediators between most profound respect, but in these latconflicting parties, though Bucer was ter days we think we observe a tenmore firm and courageous than the dency in some of its members to ignore English prelate. Bucer had recent- their obligations to the churches of ly been engaged in an undertaking the continent. Such persons we which had specially prepared him would beg to refer to the official for the work which he was ex-letter, quoted by Pestalozzi, and still pected to perform in England. preserved in Zurich, in which the Herman V., Archbishop of Cologne, Swiss churches were, in 1547, inhad, in 1541, undertaken to introduce the Reformation into his diocese without making greater changes in the government and ritual of the church than were absolutely necessary. With this intention he secured the assistance of Melancthon, and, especially, of Bucer, who was thus led to the study of questions of ritual and government, which were of great importance in his subsequent work. The movement at Cologne was not successful, and the good archbishop was forced to resign his office. On account of his connection with this enter prise, Bucer became especially obnoxious to the emperor, and was, therefore, the more ready to accept Cranmer's invitation. In England he continued his literary labors, and in connection with Peter Martyr was especially employed in the work of revising the English Liturgy. The forms hitherto in use had been closely modeled after the Roman Mass. and it is said that it was at Bucer's suggestion that auricular confession, prayers for the dead, exorcism, anointing with oil, and the authorized use of bright coloured robes were removed from the Book of Common Praver.
With all the honors that were shown him, Bucer was not happy in England. He spoke but little English, and his wife
CHRIST IN THE STORM.
When the disciples of Jesus were toiling in rowing, on the Lake of Galilee, which threatened them than by the they were less disturbed by the storm ceived form of Jesus as He drew near to dimly perceived and wholly miscouhelp them. And so it is with us all in our life-course. Those things which are for our truest welfare are the very things from which we are likeliest to shrink. Weeping may endure for a night; but in the morning-light that remembered weeping is a joy.
*The English delegation to the Synod of Dordrecht consisted of George Carleton, Bishop of Llandaff; Joseph Hall, Dean of Worcester; Samuel Ward, Archdeacon of Taunton; and John Davenant, Professor of Theology at Cambridge.
THE PATRIARCHATE OF EASTON.
BY GEORGE MERLE ZACHARIAS.
The evening twilight of a July Sabbath was shedding a peaceful quiet over the roofs and spires of an old Pennsylvania town, when two strangers passed the windowed door of the most venerable church in the place. The old churchly style of the structure seemed impressive, and it said, in tones to be heard by those who had ears to hear, "Ich bin alt kirchlich! Ja, ganz alt kirchlich und echt hoch Reformirt, seit ich getauft, confirmirt, und geweiht war." And the old eaves nodded a quiet courtesy to the strangers as they entered the churchtower doorway, and said, "Es ist eine ur-alte Reformirte Gewohnheit für uns immer in der Sontag Abend-dämmerung, Grüs Gott zu sagen; unsere urältern haben es aus Deutschland gebracht." And the strangers bowed respectfully, and entering the church's interior, soon felt at home in the straightback pews-as their 'ur-ahnen' were as 'echt Reformirt' as the structure itself.
The church's interior was as sedate a specimen of a Reformed type as could be produced. A quiet air of genteel respectability pervaded its entire arrangement, and a simplicity character ized its service. Thoughts of the pious and worthy Patriarchs, Pomp and Wolf, filled the mind, and their memory was as fresh as the green vines which climb and cluster on the church's wall. Truly it seemed as if they filled positions similar to Patriarchs in the Greek Church. Is not this a very old Reformed See, and did not Schlatter hither come in his visitations of the churches? Must not such an Ancient See have its Patriarchal character, and be looked upon as the seat of what is echt Reformirt in Northampton county! Yes! Such it does have, and always has had, in its influence upon, and in its relation to, the Reformed churches of the entire vicinity. Are not the congregations of St. Mark's and Grace churches in Easton, St. John's at Riegelsville, the offspring of its love! Those venerable Patriarchs, Pomp and Wolf, were beloved as only Patriarchs can be loved-and even those of a later
date, as Rev. Drs. Bomberger and Beck, were men having marked individuality.
And thought succeeded thought as the strangers sat in the good old, straight-back, Reformed pews, until the Pastor was seen entering the sacred structure through the curious windowed door near the chancel. Whilst the organ kindly guided the devotions of pastor and people, a silent "Christ hear us and grant us Thy peace" was said by priest and congregation. Then the service followed with devotional prayer and hymn, and it seemed plain that this old church does not forget, Patriarchal as it is, to respect Synodical authority, by complying with its request to use the Reformed church hymn book. In this respect it would be well for many other congregations to emulate its example.
The pastor, Rev. Dr. Porter, preached a sermon on the memory of President Garfield, the excellence of which was best attested by the numerous expressions of approval by his members after service and during the week. As the pastor referred to the true type of heavenly citizenship, one could not help thinking of the couplet :
"And when the Saints still toiling
Their hymns and prayers to Christ."
The offerings of the people were now gathered, and their Lord Jesus and His church were not forgotten, for it is a well-known fact over the entire church that this congregation is one of the most liberal in the Reformed communion. The prayers and alms of this congregation ascend up together as an undivided offering: and the Lord Jesus has truly returned His divine blessing, by giving its membership worldly prosperity. It is to be hoped that this congregation will still continue to remember, that to whom much is given, much will also be required. Christ's blessing having been imparted in the pastor's benediction, the strangers left the nave of this interesting church with feelings akin to awe. As they passed through the vestibule, the genial, alt kirchlich faces of the Patriarchs, Pomp and Wolf, looked down upon the children of those whom they had served as pastors.
Very interesting was it to note a cus
tom which this congregation has alone retained, viz. of having the portraits (painted in oil) of these two former Pastors, hanging on the wall in the vestibule. It recalled so vividly the sacristies of Reformed and Lutheran churches in Germany, in some of which an unbroken line of Pastors' portraits have been gradually elected since the Reformation. If it will not be regarded as discourteous, the suggestion will be made to this excellent congregation to have the portrai's of all its pastors painted. Thn could the past and present be seen and felt in a strangely real way, and as the congregation assembled or retired, the faces of departed pastors, would remind many careless members of Baptismal and Confirmation vows. Moreover would it not be well for many of our congregations to do likewise; for this time-honored custom rests on such general practice in Germany, and would accomplish such excellent results.
Very unwillingly did the strangers leave the sacred er closure, and as they pa-sed the portraits of the Patriarchs Pomp and Wolf, they made a respectful courtesy to the faces and memory of two such sainted pastors.
This alt hoch Reformirte Kirche, with its round arched windo's and Basilica form, seemed very dignified and quaint, and was indeed a more fitting place in which to worship the Holy Redeemer as king of kings, than any Basilica Hall in which emperors and earthly kings received homage. The old spire rose above the church tower in quiet serenity, even though its style of construction cannot be found in the most exhaustive work on architecture.
And the stars looked down peacefully on church and steeple, and the night air distilled a religious dew upon them both. Even the clustering leaves of the vine on the hither side of the church wall, rustled in the quiet stillness of the night air, and the branchlet seemed
"When the shadows have departed,
To the home of palm and lyre."
THE HOLY NAME.
SELECTED BY A FRIEnd of the GUARDIAN.
"My God!" the beauty oft exclaimed,
'Twas not upon the bended knee,
'Twas not in heavenly strains to raise,
But in the gay and thoughtless crowd,
'Mid scenes of mirth and mockery proud,
She called upon that awful name,
The idlest thing that flattery knew,
I thought how sweet that voice would be,
THE SEVEN CHAMPIONS OF CHRIS-
BY THE EDITOR.
A young friend, moved perhaps by our article concerning "The Nine WorSeven Champions of Christendom?” thies," now inquires: "Who were the Possibly we may have other young account of these redoubtable champions, friends who may be glad to have some though it should be necessary to relate legends which in these days are generally discredited. The seven champions were saints who were believed to be the patrons of seven European countries. During the wars of the Crusades, which began in A. D. 1096 and continued for nearly two hundred years, the armies which went forth to contend with the Mohammedans were especially z alous in their devotions to the saints. In
accordance with the spirit of the age decapitated, but fire came down from they chose patrons whose names were heaven and slew the wicked emperor. found in the calendar of the church, Of course, all this is mere romance, but and to them they believed their inter- it is not impossible that there was a ests at the court of heaven to be spec- Christian prince who suffered martyrially committed. Of course, there was dom under Diocletian. Many modern at first great diversity of opinion, but writers have, however, adopted another gradually the soldiers of each of the theory, which though not so pleasant, principal nations directed their devo- has, at least, the merit of plausibility. tions to the same saint, whose name In A. D. 328, Athanasius became Archand portrait were often placed on their bishop of Alexandria. He was violently banners, and who were believed to take opposed by the Arians, who denied the a profound interest in the success of the divinity of Christ. There were fearful armies severally confided to their care. struggles, and on several occasions the Their names became battle-cries, and Arians succeeded in driving Athanasius in the thickest of the fray many a sol- from his bishopric and intruding one dier believed he could discern signs of of their leaders into his place. One of their presence and coöperation. All these pretenders was George of Cappasorts of wild legends were believed con- docia, a man of bad character who had cerning them, and when the crusaders been a soldier, and who was no doubt returned home the patrons who were chosen Arian bishop because it was besupposed to have protected them were lieved he would fight for the place. In by common consent acknowledged as a popular tumult George was killed, the patrons of the countries from which and his followers took their revenge by the Christian hosts had gone forth. declaring him to have been a saint who Churches were everywhere dedicated to united in himself all the kuightly virtheir honor, and in some countries they tues. Subsequently, when the true incistill occupy a pre-eminent position in dents had been forgotten, his name was popular opinion. Even in 'Protestant by mistake included in the orthodox countries their names are given to pa- calendar. As it was remembered that triotic societies, their emblems appear he had been a soldier his name became on the national banners, and there is no a great favorite with the crusaders, who probability that their ancient honors will be forgotten.
We propose to give some account of these "champions," avoiding as much as possible the incredible legends which have clustered around their names, though it must be confessed that in several instances it is almost impossible to speak with confidence concerning the events of their lives.
must have been greatly at a loss for warlike saints. Legends were invented to reflect glory on his memory, and he came to be regarded as the model of chivalry. We do not vouch for this theory, but unless we accept it there is no way of identifying St. George with any known historical character.
St. George is the patron of England, and also of Genoa and of the grandduchy of Moscow. His festival is celebrated on the 23d of April.
ST. DENIS, OF FRANCE.
ST. GEORGE, OF ENGLAND. Many of our readers have, no doubt, seen English coins bearing a representation of a man on horseback, killing a According to some writers this saint dragon. This is St. George, who is said is identical with Dionysius the Areopato have been a Christian prince of Cap-gite, who was converted by the preachpadocia, who suffered martyrdom under ing of St. Paul (Acts 17: 34), and who the emperor Diocletian. According to is said to have been the first bishop of the legend he saved the life of a prin- Athens. Early French writers, howcess named Aja, by killing a dragon ever, inform us that he was the leader who was about to devour her. He went of a band of seven missionaries who to Rome for the purpose of converting came from Rome to Gaul and founded the emperor, but was imprisoned for churches in seven cities. D-nis was seven years, during which time he per- the first Christian pastor in the city of formed many miracles. Finally he was Paris. In A. D 272, during the perse