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BY THE EDITOR.
A Pilgrim, from a distant land,
With dusty hair and sunburnt brow-
He saw the porter, his ancient mate,
In days gone by, in their cups, the two
But the porter did not know him now,
Him the pilgrim hardly stopped to greet,
Then he saw the maid whom he longed to wed:
"Thou beautiful maiden, I greet thee!" he said.
But the maid from her window looked calmly down,
And she knew him not, for his face was brown. Then he wandered along through the ancient place,
While the tears came trickling down his face.
His mother he met at the chapel door:
But, see! his mother weeps for joy,
Her eye alone, in all the town, Knew the pilgrim well, though his face was brown.
—From the German of Johann Nepomuk Vogl.
A JAPANESE HERO.
BY REV. R. LEIGHTON GERHART.
Many years ago Japan was ruled by the Emperor Keiko. He had one son, who, at a very early age, began to show signs of great military genius. Among the young nobles, his companions, he was a recognized leader, and his tutors frequently bore to the father's ears tales of the boy's fearless energy that made the old Emperor's eyes sparkle with joy.
The young prince had scarcely reached the years of early manhood when news came to the court of a great rebellion that had broken out in the province of
Kiushin. To lead the army against the rebels was an honor sought by the ablest veterans of the empire; but, turning away from all these, the Emperor gave the command of the army to his son.
At the head of his troops, clothed in glittering mail, curiously and richly inlaid with gold, the Prince rode forth to meet the enemy. He was of fair mien, manly and graceful carriage, and bis beauty was heightened by the fire of expectation that now flushed his cheeks and gave fresh brilliancy to his large eyes. Many a loving glance was cast upon him by the noble ladies of the court, and many a tender thought followed him as he left the battlements of his father's capitol behind him.
Upon conquering the enemy the Prince was determined. Indeed, he felt so confident of doing so that scarcely a doubt entered his mind. But he was determined upon something act of valor that would give him a more, upon performing some signal name and a place among the heroes of his land. For in that age and in that country, it was customary for the greatest generals to engage in the actual strife of battle; and they often became as renowned for the number of men whom they had slain with their own hands, as for the number of victories gained by the troops under their command. From his earliest youth the Prince had feasted his mind on the tales of warlike adventure told of his nation's heroes, and now his heart burned to emulate their valor.
After a long and fatiguing march, during which many men sank exhausted by the way, the Prince found himself in the presence of the enemy; and his spies soon brought him word that the rebel chief, despising danger, was for that very night preparing a banquet for his followers. Our hero had no sooner heard this than he determined, at all hazards, to be present at the feast. Dressing himself in the garb of a dancing-girl, and painting his face, as the ladies of all ranks did when about to appear in public, he quietly left the camp after night set in, and approached the lines of the enemy. He found little trouble in deceiving the sentinels, and persuading them to lead
country, as in all others, often veil the mountains from sight, and cover the earth as with a mantle, were looked upon as the snares of the evil deities, while the deadly gases rising from the crater of the volcanoes or exhaled from the earth were regarded as the poisonous breath of the mountain gods, insulted by the daring intrusion into their sacred domains.
In entering the wilds of the country, therefore, there were some of the worst enemies to be dreaded, and Yamato, according to the legend, seized the first opportunity to arm himself with magical powers, to overcome the terrible spirits. On his march he stopped at the shrine of the sun goddess, where, guarded with sacred care was the wonder-working sword Murakumo, or cloud-cluster, of the great hero Sujin. The priestess, having charge of the weapon, willingly placed it in the prince's hands, and thus, like King Arthur, armed with Excalibur, he courageously set forth.
him to the presence of their chief. When he arrived there, the feast was already well advanced, the guests of all ranks being seated on mats spread out on the ground, while before them stood little tables, only a few inches high, on which the viands were placed. The company had dropped their helmets, and laid aside their swords, as is the Japanese custom at such times; and, ready for mirth, gave the supposed damsel a rousing welcome. Her dancing was loudly applauded, but when, after the company had departed, the rebel chief came to take her by the hand, suddenly the Prince threw off his disguise, seized his enemy, held him powerless, and plunged his dagger into his heart. When the guard rushed in, there lay the dead body of their chief, but the dancing girl was gone. After this disaster the rebels were easily defeated, and the Prince returned to the court of his father, where for his courageous deed he received the name, which he bore for the rest of his life,- As he advanced the Ainos fled from Yamato-Daké, or the warlike. During the plains to the woods and mountain the next thirteen years we hear little of fastnesses, avoiding an encounter in the him, and then he comes to the front open field, but taking advantage of the again to quell a new rebellion, and en- rocks, trees, and rank undergrowth, to ter on a course of conquest which gave inflict the greatest damage on their him his true place in Japanese history. enemies with least danger to themThe people whom he was now called selves. Thoroughly acquainted with upon to subdue were the aborigines of every path, defile, and mountain peak, the country, a wild race of men, called they appeared and disappeared as if Ainos, somewhat resembling our Ameri- they themselves were spirits. Disguiscan Indians in their general ways of ing themselves in the skins of bears life. Before the Japanese landed in and other animals, they prowled about the country, the Ainos inhabited every the camp, watching its every movepart of it, but defeated by the better ment, and, whenever the opportunity disciplined armies of the invader, they occurred, picking off some lone senretired, leaving a large part of Japan tinel or exhausted straggler. Stil in the hands of their enemies. There Yamato pressed forward, until at last were, however, many thousands of these he was closed in by dense and silent people in the eastern part of the island, called the Kuanto, and many more in the northern part.
The Japanese were very superstitious. They thought every mountain was the abode of a god, every defile and cave the lurking place of spirits. Air, water, and solid earth was populous with the creatures of their imagination. Every accident and calamity was the manifestation of the wrath of the local gods; every success a proof that the good spirits were especially favoring them. The dense clouds and figs which iu that
forests. The dry grass and tangled underbrush, rising high above the head, shut out the view, and it was only by the most indefatigable exertion that he was able to pursue his march.
And now the hour of the Ainos had come. Suddenly dense clouds of smoke rose to heaven in front of the army, and scarcely had the astonished soldiers caught sight of this new foe, than rolling masses of vapor were seen ascending in their rear, then on the right they burst forth, then on the left; and to the horror of all it was only too plainly re
vealed that the fiendish Ainos had set fire to the forests with the intention of consuming Yamato and his forces. Urged by the fierce winds, it was not long before the furious roar and crackle of the flames was heard, the air became dry and heated, masses of ashes and cinder rained down on the heads of the men, and soon before their very gaze blazed out the red flames. Mingled with the roar of the elements were heard the fierce, wild yells of the Ainos, who, as if transformed into demons of the fire, could here and there be seen dancing, capering, and brandishing their weapons in delight at the prospect of wasting to death the invaders of their land. Appalled by the danger, Yamato's followers crowded around him, and the hero was equal to the needs of the hour. Drawing the divinely bestowed sword, he strode forward brandishing the glittering blade above his head. He smote the grass and thick underbrush, and immediately great wide swaths of it lay at his feet. Thus clearing the way before him, he advanced against the flames, which before the flash of the terrible blade recoiled; then, as if driven by a furious wind, rolled back on the path they had come. consuming vast numbers of the wild Ainos, and scattering the rest on every hand. Awe-stricken Yamato's men followed him over the hot and blackened ground, passing, as they went, many of the charred and half-burnt bodies of their foe.
Crossing the Hakoni mountains, the Prince descended to the plain of Kuanto, which sweeps away to the shores of the blue Pacific, and soon arrived on the shore of the beautiful bay of Yeddo. Looking across the channel, he beheld the peninsula of Awa, and thinking the narrows to be easily crossed, spoke to his followers of the obstacle before them as one of trifling character. It would have better for him if he had spoken more reverently, for having embarked with his army, a terrible storm arose, and the waves tossed the light junks about on the water like so many cockle-shells, every moment threatening them with destruction. Then Yamato knew that his disparaging remark had offended the seagod, and bitterly did he repent it.
The only way to appease the wrath of the deity was by the sacrifice of a victim; and, alas, one only too dear to him stood by his side, his beloved wife, who had followed him through all his perils. The self-sacrificing wife knew, too, what was demanded, and, bidding her lord farewell, she flung herself into the boiling waves. For a few moments she was buoyed up by her garments, but the tempest wildly drove the ship on, and the husband saw his beloved wife no more. The sacrifice was accepted; the wind sank to rest, the waves ceased their raging, clouds and darkness disappeared, and the lovely landscape unveiled itself in all its beauty. A few days after this, as Yamato wandered disconsolately along the shore, he found the perfumed comb of his wife, and, building an altar, he consecrated the precious relic as a votive offering to the gods. To this day the fishermen and sailors, whose junks ply to and fro over the lovely bay of Yeddo, resort to the shrine erected there to worship.
Advancing now in ships far to the north, Yamato overcame every army the Ainos sent against him, then exacting promises of tribute, he took the greatest chiefs as hostages, and set out on his return. After a long and perilous march, he reached the famous mountain-pass of Hesui Togé, the ascent of which is attended with incredible toil. The plain at the foot of this mountain is a lofty table-land thousands of feet above the level of the sea. Here standing, the Prince looked down on the maguificent bay of Yeddo and the plain below, one of the most impressive scenes in the world. Resting his eye on the fatal spot where the darling of his heart had perished, he murmured, "Adzuma, adzuma," (my wife, my wife). And to this day the poets speak of the plain of Yeddo by the musical name-Adzuma.
But with the responsibility resting on him of leading his men safely home, Yamato controlled his grief, and began the toilsome ascent. In those days roads in that part of the country were unknown, and even yet the journey is one of great difficulty. Up the slippery heights, through rocky defiles, across lava beds, and river torrents,
BEGINNINGS OF THE REFORMED
BY THE EDITOR.
now creeping along the edge of the ships, broken-hearted at the loss of his fearful precipice, now scaling almost beloved wife, and still suffering from impassable rocks, the toil-worn and the poisonous breath of the wicked bearded warriors pursued their way. kami, Yamato breathed his last before Their clothing was in rags, their armor the messengers sent by the Emperor rusted and battered, their banners torn, arrived to welcome him. He was bubut their hearts were stout, and in weari- ried at Nobono in Isé. From his tomb ness and silence the long and strag- a white bird flew up; and, on opening gling line of men followed their leader. his coffin, nothing but the empty robes Suddenly, right before them they saw of the dead hero were found. His a white deer. Suspecting at once that death took place A. D. 113, at the age it was the god of the mountain on of thirty-six. Many temples in the whose domain they were trespassing, Kuanto and in various parts of Japan and that he had come for no good pur- are dedicated to him. While for the pose, and knowing that against such a immense services he rendered to his being weapons would avail nothing, country, and in honor of the land he Yamato seized a handful of wild garlic had conquered, he received a new adthat grew in the fissures of the rocks, dition to his name, and became known and flung it with such dexterity as to in Japanese history as Yamato-Dake, strike the white deer in the eye. The the Conqueror of the Kuanto. plant had magical power, and the deer, trembling and shivering, retreated a few rods and fell heavily forward on its knees. On approaching it, the soldiers were surprised to find that it was dying. Scarcely had the animal breathed its last, when the whole mountain began to heave and shake as with an ague-fit, huge rocks, loosened by the convulsion, In the library of the Theological rolled down the steep declivities, and Seminary at Lancaster there is a large with a noise like thunder plunged into German Bible which was printed by the waters at the foot of the crags. A Christoffel Froschauer of Zurich, in 1531. dense mist descended upon the earth, It contains all the canonical books, as enveloping the soldiers in darkness, and well as the Apocrypha, and is an exhiding from their view every sign of the cellent specimen of early printing. In it path they were treading. Fearing to there are many illustrations, colored by move lest in their blindness they should hand, which give us an excellent idea fall into the chasms at their feet, or of the primitive condition of art in the lose themselves in the defiles of the earlier part of the sixteenth century. mountains, they clung in terror to the Some of these are quaint and almost rocks. By and by in the darkness a amusing. Thus, for instance, the serwhite dog appeared, which was recog-pent in the temptation is represented as nized by Yamato as a good spirit in having the head of a man and wearing disguise. Following it, they were led safely to the plain below. But the white dog had hardly left them, when the men began to reel and fall, in a state of stupor, to the ground, for the wicked kami had followed them, and discharged upon them his fetid and poisonous breath. Happily then, some one bethought him of the magic root, of which they all ate, and immediately recovered.
After Zwingli's Death.
a golden crown. Jacob is depicted as sleeping on the shore of a lake, with a castle near at hand, and an Alpine scene in the distance. Pharaoh wears a crown ornamented by the three lilies of France.
This Bible, it will be observed, was published in the very year of Zwingli's death; but it was not the earliest German Bible that had been printed at Zurich. The New Testament had isAt last, after three years' absence, sued from Froschauer's press in 1524; the brave Prince, with the remnant of the first part of the Old Testament in his heroic band, reached the borders of 1525, and the concluding portion in his father's land. But he could go no 1529. In the latter year an edition of further. Worn out with many hard- the entire Scriptures was also printed in
Latin characters. Luther, it will be remembered, had published his translation of the New Testament as early as 1522, but his first complete German Bible was printed by Hans Lufft, in Wittenberg, in 1534. Indeed, no less than six editions of the Swiss version had been published before the appearance of Luther's Bible; but they had one defect which prevented their general use. The translators had rendered the Scriptures as nearly as possible into the lan guage of the common people, without exactly adopting any one of the Swiss dialects; while Luther had carefully chosen the refined language of the upper classes, thus producing a work that was both permanent and beautiful. The Swiss version was naturally almost confined to Switzerland and Southern Germany, while that of Luther was used every where else, and is still regarded as one of the noblest productions of German literature.
the Scriptures from Hebrew and Greek into Latin, which was regarded by theologians as an achievement of the very highest order.
After Leo Juda had declined the position of chief pastor, or "antistés," of the church of Zurich, it was offered to Oecolampadius, who declined it, preferring to remain in Basel. Then a call was extended to Bullinger, who accepted it, and was afterwards for many years regarded as the chief religious leader of the German Reformed Church.
Henry Bullinger (1504-1575) was the best man who could possibly have been chosen for this prominent position, and it is not too much to say that he was principally instrumental in the preservation and completion of Zwingli's work. He came to Zurich at a time of great depression. "The ship," says Pestalozzi, "had lost its mainmast, and appeared about to go down." Leo Juda (born 1482-died 1542) There was danger everywhere. In conwas the chief of the Swiss translators. sequence of the victory of Cappel the His curious name has induced some Catholic party had become greatly writers to suppose him to have been a encouraged, and in outlying districts convert from Judaism, but this is in the Protestants were bitterly persecorrect. He himself supposed that he cuted. At this time king Ferdinand must be descended from some remote wrote to his brother, the emperor ancestor who had been a convert, but Charles V.: "We have won the first of the fact could not be established. the battles of the faith. Remember He was, like Bullinger, the son of a that you are the head of Christendom priest, who had privately married, not- and will never have a better opporwithstanding the prohibition of the tunity of covering yourself with glory. Roman church. At the university he The German sects will be lost when formed an intimate friendship with they cease to be sustained by heretic Zwingli, and subsequently became his Switzerland." The German Protesassistant in Zurich. After Zwingli's tants, however, failed to appreciate this death Leo was offered his position, but community of interest, and continued he declined it, feeling that he was not to denounce the Swiss in the most unsuited for an office of such great re-sparing terms. Besides doctrinal differsponsibility. He was a great Biblical scholar, and delighted in preaching; but it was necessary that the head of the church of Zurich should be more than an ordinary preacher or pastor. In a certain sense he must have the care of all the churches." Leo Juda knew that he was physically too weak for such a position, and preferred to remain an assistant. He was, however, unwearied in his labors, not only translating the Scriptures, but composing hymns and catechisms, and assisting in the preparation of the Swiss confessions of faith. His last great work was a translation of
ences, the princes and nobility blamed them with sympathizing with the peasants in their unfortunate rebellion, which was known as the "Peasants' War." No wonder that Bullinger said: "Even if we were wrong they ought not to treat us so." Worst of all, Switzerland was full of Anabaptists, who claimed to be divinely inspired, and who, therefore, pretended to be superior to the laws of church and state.
In these dark and gloomy days Bullinger was recognized as the father of all who were desolate and depressed.