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in the text, are likewise indicated in the side margin. The foot margin is reserved for occasional comments and critical observations,

The principles adopted in this translation, were:

(1) To translate, as literally as possible, in consistence with idiomatic and perspicuous English.

(2) To use Saxon phraseology in preference to Latin, as better according with the spirit of the Peshito original.»

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(3) To adopt the obsolescent and solemn style of the English Bible, e. g. thou speakest, he speaketh, ye speak, instead of you speak, he speaks, &c., as more seemly for this holy Book."

(4) To write the proper names of persons and places, which are mentioned in the Old Testament, as they are written in our English Old Testament; and those which occur only in the New Testament, as they are written in our English New Testament. This is the rule adopted by Dr. Campbell in his translation of the Four Gospels. Yet so (Meshihha) has been translated Messiah, and not Christ; and (Shemun) has been translated Simon, and not Peter.


(5) In general, to avoid using technical theological terms, when good substitutes could be found, in order to call away attention from the word to the thing thus (an Apostle) is rendered Legate; and ·J (Saviour) is rendered Vivifier, as being more literal, for the verb (especially in the Conjug. Aphel, ) properly signifies to make alive, to vivify; and its derivatives and properly signify life, and life-giver, or vivifier. These are the usual terms of the Syriac version, denoting that salvation which Christ bestows on fallen men, who are represented as "dead in trespasses and sin." The terms Loo (liberator, deliverer) and Lojo (deliverance) are indeed sometimes used of this salvation, but less frequently.-Yet there is one family of Syriac technicals, which have been rendered by the English technicals for the same ideas, to the neglect of their primary meaning. They are o


(properly, intransitive, to stand up, to stand firm,) which is translated, to be baptized-os (literally, transitive, to cause another to stand, to establish), translated, to baptize-osso (an establisher, one who makes others to stand), translated, a baptizer :--and Apolosso (a standing up), translated, baptism.

(6) To translate idiomatic phrases not fully naturalized in the English language, by equivalent English phrases, and not to transfer them in their foreign costume. Thus, (a feeder on detraction), an epithet of Satan, is translated a calumniator:(lord of enmity) is translated an enemy :—Mi (major-domus) is rendered, a steward: -120 3 (mastership of the house) is rendered stewardship:Loloso (accepting faces) is rendered, having respect of persons, or partiality: (assumers of faces) is rendered hypocrites : Luoi Logo (letting out breath), apologizing, or defending one's self: and wo3 20 (holding the breath), being patient, or long suffering :— I? (living away from roofs, roaming in fields) are lunatics. So also many compounds of, a son, and of A, a house or home, are paraphrased; e. g. son of his city, rendered, his fellow-citizenson of my yoke, rendered, my yoke-fellow, or colleague:-son of forty years, rendered, forty years old:-son of their trade, rendered, one of their occupation:son of a man, rendered, a man :—sons of men, rendered men; &c. And house of the prisoners, translated, a` prison :-house (home) of the dead, translated, a grave, or sepulchre :-house of gatherings, translated, a garner, or store-house-house of the publicans, translated, a custom house :-house (home) of olives, translated, an olive yard:-house (home) of the eyes, translated, the forehead; &c.

When the translator had finished his work, he supposed that he had produced the only English translation of the New Testament ever made from the Peshito; but after about three months, the London press issued a book, entitled, "A Literal Translation of the Four Gospels from the

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Peshito, by J. W. Etheridge;" and announced, as in preparation, by the same author, "The Apostolical Acts and Epistles, from the Peshito." The Gospels of Mr. Etheridge were speedily procured; but, on comparing them with this version, the plan and aims of Mr. Etheridge were found to be so diverse from his own, that the translator had no hesitation in going forward with his work. Accordingly, he continued to revise and correct it; and, for the sake of improving it, as he found opportunity, he pursued the study of the Syriac language and literature, for more than four years. The result he now presents to the Christian public, hoping it may prove both interesting and useful to all such as are anxious to perfect themselves in the knowledge of the holy Scriptures of the New Testament.


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