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act without a motive? Or was it to express and gratify his own perfect goodness? Was it his love of happiness, his delight in happiness, that induced the purpose and the wish ?

The divine glory deserves the most regard. Not only must the infinite and eternal Creator have had some end in view in the creation, but one that justifies the expressions of his omnipotence, and that is worthy of the greatest and best Being in the universe. We can conceive of many ends that might have presented themselves to his mind, but we can conceive of no supreme end short of himself, without derogating from his perfect excellence. Universal creation is but a point compared with God. Language and figures, and comparisons, are lost in the contemplation of his being and nature. The material and intellectual universe is but a faint adumbration of what God himself is, and presents a mere shadow, an emblem of his infinite perfections. All nations, all worlds,

. are but a “drop of the bucket,” compared with him, and no more than the small vapour to the immense ocean. Immeasurable glories and blessedness belong to Him who fills immensity. The glory of the infinite God, therefore, deserves the highest regard. And, with reverence be it spoken, it became him to make this his design, as really as it becomes him to give the preference to an archangel above an insect.

The use which God actually makes of his creation, shows what end it was intended to answer. It subserves the end for which it was originally intended. And what do the Scriptures and facts declare this to be? Obviously, not the happiness of all God's creatures; for they are not all happy. Human misery stares us in the face wherever we turn our eyes. In eternity, there are, and will be greater and deeper miseries than are found in time. So that if the happiness of all God's creatures be the ultimate end of creation, most certainly the divine purpose is defeated. But facts and the Bible unite in declaring, that the use God makes of his universe is the promotion and advancement of his own glory. When we survey the works of creation, to what do we see them so really and so much subservient, as the glory of the Creator? “All thy works praise thee.“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts, the whole earth is full of his glory. If we survey the works

.” of Providence, what do they illustrate so clearly, as the supremacy, wisdom, goodness, power, and presence of the Almighty and efficient Ruler? What grand and deep impression do they produce on the mind, if not this, that they are

VOL. IV. No. 1.-N

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full of God?-that by them his name is “declared throughout all the earth”—and that through them men “may know that he is the Lord?” It will not be doubted that the glory of God is the great end of the work of redemption. Angels, when they announced it, sang “Glory to God in the highest!” The Redeemer, when he achieved it, prayed “Father glorify thy name!” All its promises are “ yea and amen to the glory of God, by Jesus Christ.” The graces, and hopes, and joys it imparts to the saints, are to “make known the riches of his glory.And the final and triumphant song it inspires in the heavenly world, is “unto to him be glory!" Not only is the glory of God the ultimate end of all his goodness and mercy to the saints, but of all his justice and indignation to the ungodly. “The wrath of man shall praise the Lord.” Alleluias to God and the Lamb shall ascend, when the smoke of the torments of the damned go up for ever and ever. And the close of this terrestrial scene shall declare and confirm the truth we are enforcing with a deep and memorable emphasis. A voice from heaven shall then be heard, saying, * It is done; I am Alpha and Omega!” When the great design shall be consummated, and creation, providence, and redemption shall have been brought to their final issue, and the Judge shall have pronounced the final sentence, then shall this redeeming God and King “deliver up the kingdom to God, even the Father, and GOD SHALL BE ALL IN ALL;" and this surrender shall eternally proclaim to the universe, that "God made all things for himself.” God shall be all in all. God shall be infinitely and forever glorified.

But it may not be amiss to occupy a few pages in VINDICATING THE CONDUCT OF GOD IN THUS MAKING HIMSELF HIS

There is nothing which the Scriptures represent as more essential to enlarged and consistent views of truth, as well as to the great interests of vital piety, than some just conceptions of this part of our subject. There is nothing of which God himself is so jealous, nothing he regards so deeply as his own glory. This he is immutably resolved to secure and advance, and by all means, and at every step of its development, to make men see. He “ will not give his glory to another." His glory is with him, a consideration of paramount influence, in every condition and circumstance, and in all worlds. It is second to nothing which the Infinite Mind itself has ever conceived. Holy beings in heaven and on earth have no larger wish, no greater desire, than to behold greater and brighter exhibitions of the divine excellence.

LAST END.

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It is of the highest importance in itself, that God should appear in the perfect exercise and exhibition of his divine excellence. The importance of this exhibition depends on the intrinsic and manifold perfections of the divine nature. If there were no excellence in the Deity, we should be far from considering it desirable that his true character should appear; much less should we desire that the full and complete exhibition and gratification of it should be the ultimate end of all that he does. In itself considered, no matter how long, or how impenetrably, intrinsic turpitude of character lies concealed; it is deformed and disgusting to look at; it makes no one the better or happier for being familiar with it; but the more fully, the more impressively intrinsic excellence is disclosed, the deeper is the conviction of its reality and loveliness, and the more sublime and beautiful the survey and inspection of its glories. Now, it is because God is infinitely great and good, that it is desirable to see him as he is.” That immensity and majesty, that power and wisdom, that supremacy and immutability, that pure, perfect, and universal goodness, which diffuse their energy into all the divine plans, and spread such beauty and glory over all the divine works and conduct, are in him excellencies of the highest kind, and immeasurable in degree. We do not appreciate the exhibition of the divine excellence, because we have such low and grovelling thoughts of God. Were this immensely great and infinitely glorious Being always viewed as he is, did we see him to be the first fair and the first good,” were we always possessed of just and comprehenssve conceptions of his glory, we should entertain no doubt, that the reflection of this excellence, the progressive diffusion of these concentrated rays, is the highest and best end which the Supreme Intelligence could propose to himself in all his works. The principle on which we affirm this, is inwoven with all our common sense and moral calculations. Every man regrets, and deems it an unhappiness, when a measure of mere human excellence is hid from the public eye. When virtue languishes in solitude, when genius withers in retirement, when the heavy hand of external discouragement or internal depression bears down the rising efforts of intellectual or moral greatness, what benevolent mind does not reflect upon such calamity with pain? And if in proportion to the degree of excellence is the importance that it should be unfolded, beyond conception important is it that the matchless, manifold, infinite, and eternal excellence of the Deity should

appear, and be displayed abroad in all its glory. If the king, eternal, immortal, and invisible, possesses, not the resemblance and image, but “the living features” of perfection, who feels it not to be important that the light of his fair countenance should be lifted upon the universe he has made, and that every subject of his empire should be constrained to see, that "none in heaven can be compared unto the Lord, and none among the sons of the mighty can be likened unto the Lord?” Not only is there in this disclosure ineffable loveliness and beauty, but there is equity both to himself and his creatures. If he is a holy God, and there is beauty in his holiness, then ought it to appear that he is holy and not sinful. If he is just, and there are beauties and amiableness in his justice, then is it desirable and important that his justice should appear, and be magnified; and that he should forever be acquitted of the imputation of cruelty, caprice, and injustice. If he is wise, and powerful, and good, then is it infinitely desirable that these perfections of his nature should be acted out, and he exalted and gratified; and that no order of beings should ever call in question the wisdom, efficacy, or benevolence of his adminis. trations. If he is gracious and merciful, then ought all men to see what is the fellowship of the mystery which from the beginning of the world, hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ, to the intent that now unto principalities and powers in heavenly places, might be known through the Church, his manifold glory.” If he is supreme, then is it desirable that his supremacy should appear, and that all should know, that he “does his pleasure in the armies of heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth.” And if he is in every view a being of faultless, unequalled perfection, and that every

intellectual and moral excellence adorns his nature, and are the habitation and glory of his throne, then is it of the highest importance that his unblemished glory should shine forth, and that nothing mar its unrivalled beauty. There was an emphasis in the inquiry of Moses, that sinks into the soul of every godly man and every bending seraph, “What will become of thy great name?” We know that among fallen spirits, and in this world of ours that lieth in wickedness, the divine character has been subjected to the foulest stains, his government reproached, and his designs defamed; and unless his excellence appear in cloudless glory, dissipating the obscurity in which it has been enveloped by the ignorance, misconception, and wickedness of creatures, the stain can never be wiped away. God must be glorified. Every supposed blemish must be removed by the exhibition of himself. Every murmur against him must die away. “Every mouth must be stopped.” And nothing short of the actual development of the divine nature can attain this end. All that God is, and all that he does, must "come to the light,” that it may be approved and applauded by ten thousand tongues, and ten thousand times ten thousand consciences, and that their approbation and their plaudits may be eternal.

It is also through the bright exhibitions of his own glory, that the God of love designs to secure and perpetuate the perfect and progressive holiness of unnumbered multitudes of his creatures. Some of the creatures of God were created holy, and have maintained their primeval integrity, and will maintain it for ever. Some were created holy, and fell from their primitive rectitude, and have given birth to a race of beings, fallen like themselves. Of these, a great multitude are recovered from their apostacy, and will continue steadfast in their obedience without end. And it is obvious to remark, that whether true holiness, or moral rectitude, is found among angels or men, it is advanced and perpetuated by the same means. Wherever it is found, it consists in holy love, and primarily, in love to the adorable and ever blessed God. “Love is the fulfilling of the law.“He that dwelleth in love, dwelleth in God, and God in him.” He that “loveth not, knoweth not God, for God is love." Now it accords with the Scriptures, and all the experience of good men that the love of God exists and is sustained through the knowledge of God. The Divine Spirit is, indeed, the immediate and only cause and author of this heavenly disposition; but the knowledge of God is the great instrument of it. This is the aliment of all healthful, moral existence. Wherever sinful beings are made holy, it is by becoming acquainted with God. When God renews the hearts of the sons of men, aud sheds abroad his love in them, they are illumined from above, and enabled to discern the supreme excellence and glory of the divine character. “God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, shines in their hearts, to give them the light of the knowledge of his glory, in the face of Jesus Christ.” And wherever holy beings see and learn most of God, they become most holy. Holy affections delight in nothing but a holy object, and the most holy affections delight in nothing so much as the most holy. The highest holiness in creatures

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