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PREFACE

The rise and spread of trained nursing is one of the most remarkable developments of the last half of the nineteenth century, and forms an important chapter in social progress. It is a matter for national pride that Great Britain has been the cradle of this beneficent movement. No other country can show a like record, and though America has a highly organized and efficient system of nursing, it modelled its early training-schools on that of St. Thomas's Hospital. The name of Florence Nightingale had been wafted across the Atlantic, and when the brave daughters of America volunteered to go out and nurse "the boys" during the Civil War they were inspired by the example of the heroine of the Crimea.

Fifty years ago the idea of educated women training as nurses was regarded with wonder and amazement, or at best treated as a sentimental fad. Now there is a vast army of skilled and trained women engaged in this important profession throughout the British Empire, to say nothing of other lands. No place is too remote, no climate too deadly, for the nurse to ply her ministrations. Like the soldier she obcys the call of duty, and, if need be, gives her life in the cause. In field hospital in time of war; in miner's camp or settler's hut; on Canadian prairie, in the Australian bush, or the South African

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veldt ; on the burning plains of India and in the deadly tropics the trained nurse is to be found. At home her ministrations reach the poorest attic. Every hospital, whether civil, military, or naval, is staffed by trained nurses-our largest hospital employs upwards of five hundred nurses, including the private staff-while. Poor Law Infirmaries and Asylums for the Insane have trained nurses approximating to the standard of the best General Hospitals. The advance of medical and surgical science has made the skilled nurse a necessity, and the change from the past to the present system of nursing is little short of a revolution. Nursing is the first profession for women to have been recognized by a Royal Charter, and the question of the Registration of nurses by the State has cngaged the attention of a Select Committee of the House of Commons, and is pending solution.

Being but a simple scribe, with no claim to belong to the profession of nursing, my endeavour has been to take a "brief” for the history of the movement, unbiassed by any school or faction, and chiefly intent on following the main stream of facts and incidents.

No History of Nursing has so far been published, and data for this volume have been obtained by original research. No pains have been spared to obtain accurate information, and in many cases the archives of the various hospitals and nursing institutions have been consulted. The writer has received valuable help and guidance from distinguished pioneers in the nursing and philanthropic world and from eminent medical men.

Without holding them in any way responsible for her conclusions, she would like to thank in particular the following ladies and gentlemen who have in various ways assisted her, or whose writings have been helpful : Miss Isabella Beaver, Sister Superior the Nursing Sisters St. John the Divine ; Sir Jaries Crichton Browne, M.R.C.S., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.; Miss Sidney Browne, R.R.C. ; Sir Henry Burdett, K.C.B. ; Miss Cadenhead ; Sister Caroline, Sister Superior St. John's House ; The Rev. Dacre

; Craven, M.A.; Mrs. Dacre Craven ; W. H. Cross, Esq. ; Miss Mary S. Crossland ; Clinton Dent, Esq., M.A., M.C., F.R.C.S. ; Sir Dyce Duckworth, M.D., LL.D.; The Countess of Dufferin and Ava; Miss French ; Mrs. Follows ; Miss Hadden; Dr. Harvey (Perth Hospital, W. Australia); Miss M. E. Dalrymple Hay; Mrs. Julian Hill ; The Honble. Sydney Holland ; Miss Amy Hughes ; Dr. F. Rowland Humphreys, L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. ; Dr. Theodore Hyslop, C.M., M.R.C.P.,

; L.M.; Dr. Robert Jones, B.S., F.R.C.S., M.R.C.P.; Miss Caroline Lloyd ; Miss Eva Lückcs ; Miss Katharine Monk; Miss Moorhouse ; The Rev. Arthur Peile, M.A., Master of St. Katharine's Royal Collegiate Hospital ; Sidney M. Quennell, Esq. ; Miss Elcanor Rathbonc; Miss Margaret Russell ; Thomas Ryan, Esq. ; Dr. Shuttleworth; Miss Sarah Swift ; Dr. SymesThompson, F.R.C.P.; C. L. Todd, Esq. ; Captain Tünnard ; Miss Louisa Twining; Miss Wilson, Presi. dent the Midwives' Institute ; and Miss Catherine Wood.

My best thanks are also given to the heads of the Medical Departments of the War Office, Admiralty, and India Office; to the Agents-Gencral for Canada, New South Wales, Queensland, New Zealand, Tasmania, Natal, and Cape Colony, for papers and reports supplied with regard to the nursing in hospitals in their respective Colonies ; and to the Matrons, Lady Superintendents, and Secretaries of the various hospitals and nursing institutions visited in Great Britain and Ireland, for their kindness and courtesy in placing information at my disposal.

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