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no single feature of a good Bibliographical Translated from the Swedish of Dr. P. A. Dictionary. It is nothing more than a Siljiström, by Frederica Rowan. Post catalogue of a tolerably large theological 8vo.: The Rise and Progress of National library, with a few names of writers in Education in England : its Obstacles, general literature. Its only real value Wants, and Prospects; a Letter to Richard beyond other extant manuals, consists in Cobden, Esq., M. P., By Richard Church. the fact that it gives tables of contents to 8vo., paper :--Historical Outlines of Politieach writer, where it is practicable. cal Catholicism; its Papacy, Prelacy,

Tue second volume of Bunsen's " Egypt's Priesthood, People. Demy 8vo. :-Chamois Place in Universal History,"containing the Hunting in the Mountains of Bavaria. By second and third volumes of the original Charles Boner. With Illustrations. Demy German edition, is just announced by 8vo.:- Montenegro, and the Slavonians of Longmans, London. The third and con

Turkey. By Count Valerian Krasinski, cluding volume is also preparing for pub- Author of the “ Religious History of the lication.

Slavonic Nations," &c. Fcap. :—The Diary

of Martha Bethune Baliol from 1753 to Messes. B. Westermann & Co., New York, have commenced the publication of a very

1754. Post 8vo.:-Language as a Means

of Mental Culture and International Comconvenient Literary Bulletin, which they munication ; or, A Manual of the Teacher furnish gratis, by mail, to all who desire it. It contains a list of the latest German

and Learner of Languages. By C. Marcel.

2 vols. crown 8vo., cloth :--The Stones of • books in every department of literature, as received by each steamer, and kept on

Venice. By John Ruskin. Vol. 2, Imperial 8vo., with numerous Illustrations:

-Memhand by the Messrs. Westermann.

orandums made in Ireland, in the Autumn The volumes of Bohn's Libraries for

of 1852. By John Forbes, M. D., Author May are the following :- The Illustrated

of the “Physician's Holiday,” 2 vols. Library: Norway and its Scenery; com

post 8vo. :—The Bhilsa Topes; or, Buddprising the Journal of Edward Price, and

hist Monuments of Central India. By & Road Book for Tourists, edited and

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Odisch-magnetische Briefe von Karl Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, Edi- Frhrn. v. Reichenbach, Ph. Dr. Stuttgart: tor of " Demosthenes de Corona." 8vo., 1852; 199 pp., 8vo. cloth :—The Frontier Lands of the Chris- Hellas. Vorträge über Heimath, Getian and the Turk; comprising Trav

schichte, Literatur und Kunst der Hellenen els in the Regions of the Lower Dan- von Friedr. Jacobs. Aus dem handschriftube, in 1850 and 1851. By a British lichen Nachlass des Verfassers herausgeg. Resident of twenty years in the East. von E. F. Wüstemann, Berlin : 1852; 438 2 vols., 8vo. :—A History of the Pa- pp., 8vo. pacy to the Period of the Reformation. Commentationis criticae de Anthologis Founded upon the German of Planck's

Graeca pars prior. Scripsit Alpk. Hecker, “Geschichte Des Papsthums." By Rev. litt. hum. Dr. phil. th. Mag. Lugd. Bat., J. E. Riddle, author of the “ Bampton MDCCCLII. VIII, u. 357 PP., 8vo. Lectures," and "The Latin Dictionary." Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der 2 vols., 8vo.

neueren Philosophie. Von Dr. K. Ficker, Among the new works in miscellaneous 1. Bd.: Die Philosophie von Cartesius bis literature recently announced on the con

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phie rationnelle. Ouvrage posthume du Histoire des classes laborieuses, précédée comte Jos, da Maistre, 2 vols. Lyon: d'un essai sur l'économie industrielle et 1852 ; pp. 354, 8vo.

PP., 8vo.



OCTOBER, 1853.



The task of presenting a satisfactory alleviation for the difficulties of the sixteenth century was reserved for Francis Bacon—the father of an Instauration greater than any which preceded it, because it was the last. We should not be justified in regarding Bacon as the equal of Aristotle, if we compare the two together. Neither in versatility nor in comprehensiveness can he be legitimately esteemed as on a par with his predecessor; while the circumstances of his life, perhaps even more than the temper of his mind, denied him that habit of thorough, minute, and sustained observation, that patient sobriety of judgment, that graceful and felicitous negligence of all ostentation, which are so miraculously blended with the massive speculation of the earlier philosopher. The single epithet of Intellect, by which Plato happily characterized Aristotle, is preëminently appropriate to him, and to him alone. He was the intellect in its purest and simplest form, with a full mastery of all its various powers ; free from weakness and without alloy. Unseduced by the imagination, though no stranger to its inspiration; untainted by passion, though susceptible of all healthy and legitimate emotion; without enthusiasm, though guided by a steady philosophic ardour; he was the perfect embodiment of the calm, self-sustaining, sober, discriminating, and all embracing mind. To this elevation Bacon never attained: but though inferior in the highest qualities of thought and feeling to his unrivalled predecessor, he had the advantage of living in a later and a more favourable age—an age of vigorous intellectual development. He had thus the vantage ground of past centuries to stand upon, and the expanding thought of the coming generation to hail and extend his dominion. The effect which he produced was thus more sensible, and his influence wider, more immediate, and more operative, than even in the case of Abelard. He became

Fourth SERIES, VOL. V.-31

at once, and still remains, the undoubted parent of modern science, and of all the great discoveries to which the modern intellect lays claim, and of which it might be so justly proud, if it did not suffer itself to be dazzled by the brilliancy and extent of its empire. It is only at this late day that a competitor has arisen to dispute the continued reign of Bacon; but M. Comte recognises him as the legislator of his philosophy, and the claim has been alleged by the eager followers of the great Positivist, not by himself—and still remains to be substantiated. To aid in the settlement of this claim is our object; and to inform the judgment of our readers, we proceed to examine the characteristics of the Baconian reform with the same sobriety and impartiality which we have endeavoured to exercise in the analysis of the careers of Aristotle and Abelard.

The universality contemplated by the Baconian Instauration is the first of its features to be noticed. It designed a chart of the intellectual globe, and criticised all learning and all knowledge. It scrutinized the practical as well as the theoretical, and proposed the improvement, the extension, and the expansion of both. There was no exclusive partiality for any one form of human development,no unjust derogation from the dignity, validity, and importance of any other: but the harmonious reconstruction of all speculation was desired as a preparation for a more enlightened, efficient, and successful practical procedure. If the scholastic misapplication of logic was severely censured, its due claims were confidently asserted; and, though the necessities of the times, no less than existing abuses, directed the attention and the labours of Bacon principally to natural science, the superior dignity of moral and religious truth, and the higher authority of the Aristotelian logic are uniformly and steadily maintained by him. His philosophy, when received in a large and congenial spirit, will be found to be equally removed from the onesided exclusiveness of transcendental rationalism, and from the narrow insufficiency of mere empiricism. It embraces in harmonious union the sober truth of either extreme, and duly subordinates all human thought to the over-ruling supremacy of a revealed religion. Taking the familiar division of knowledge into ethical and physical science, it is true that Bacon concerned himself principally with the latter, and most assiduously attempted its development. He did so, however, without forgetting, denying, or neglecting the former ; and employed his talents in this direction because physical science was at that time the most diseased, and the most inefficient, in consequence of the misapplication of syllogistic logic to its investigation. But physical science was never pursued by Bacon for its own sake, nor ever regarded by him as of itself the legitimate end of knowledge. We are aware that this judgment of the Baconian philosophy is not exactly consonant with the superficial fallacies current upon the subject; but it has been the fashion for men, like Macaulay, to declaim magisterially respecting productions of which they had read only scattered fragments, and to be listened to with a stupid credulity. The great merit of Bacon's intellectual renovation is, that it rejects no part of human knowledge, conceived or conceivable; that it proposes to render the barren places of speculation productive by a better culture, and to retain with a firm hand and under better management all old acquisitions, while extending, by the aid of a more efficacious procedure, the frontiers of science, and bringing under its jurisdiction territories as yet unknown and undiscovered.

We next notice the manner in which the proposed reform was undertaken. The errors to be corrected, as the false philosophy to be supplanted, had sprung in great measure from misapprehension of the narrowness of the special domain of scholastic logic, and from the misapplication of the syllogistic or deductive method to those physical inquiries to which it was singularly inappropriate, and in regard to which it had been sedulously, though not altogether methodically, renounced by Aristotle and the more profound sages of antiquity. In instituting a new method, or rather in giving novel prominence and a more decided type to an old one, a more correct logical procedure was required for the prosecution of scientific studies. The deductive method was to be chiefly and primarily confined to moral or ethical speculations, and nature was to be investigated, and the general laws of her action discovered, not by the new, but by the newly revived and more clearly apprehended instrumentality of induction. Induction itself, as a formal mode of reasoning, was neither invented, discovered, nor first expounded by Bacon. Aristotle gives Socrates the credit of its first scientific recognition. It was largely employed by Aristotle in his Zoological works and in his Political inquiries: its conditions were examined by the Scholiasts,* and in the eleventh century by Joannes Italus ;t

• David. Prolegg. Porph. Int. Schol. Aristot., p. 18, a. 36, Alex. Aphrod. Schol, p. 585, b. 40; p. 586, a. 20.

ή έστι δε των διαλεκτικών αποδείξεων είδη δύο, το μεν επαγωγή, το δε συλLoylouós, K. 7. 2., cit. Waitz. Ed. Organon, vol. I, p. 19. It has been maintained by Macaulay, and his position is in some degree justified by Bacon's own expressions, that the induction of the ancients was different from that of Bacon, and merely a simple comparison of instances; but this is disproved by Aristotle, Metaph. xii, iv, p. 1078, and by the above passage of Joannes Italus, which continues to criticise the inductive process in the manner and with the acuteness of Sir Wm. Hamilton, (Discussions, &c., p. 164,) anticipating his distinctions.

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