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414 J. S. Fry's Concise History of Tithes. [22
10 MOD OT CLAM TIV AKO . the practice of taking a tenth of produce, instead of a tenth of increase, be or be not a departure from ancient practice ; whether the present system does or does not operate to the discouragement of agriculture, as well as to many other collateral considerations, a ready answer may be given ; and that is, the Laws of the Land. It was no part of my professed intention to inquire whether our ecclesiastical system is or is not consistent with these laws; but to inquire how far it is consistent with the examples and precepts of the Founder of Christianity, and of his Apostles. If it be admitted that the contrary has been satisfactorily proved in the foregoing pages, it becomes a question for the serious consideration of the Professors and Teachers of Christianity, for Christian Legislators, and for Christian Magistrates, whether they are authorised to enforce any Laws that stand opposed to the Laws and Injunctions of Jesus Christ? how they can answer, in the great day of account, for being instrumental in perpetuating a system of usurpation, instituted in the darkest ages of ignorance and superstition, by men whom they themselves call the Ministers of the Devil ?” whether the laws of Man will, in that day, be a valid plea in the face of the Precepts and Example of Jesus Christ, whose Disciples they profess to be
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BY JOSEPH JOHN GURNEY.
(Continued from Pamphleteer, No. XXIX. p. 260.)
This small prison appeared to be kept in a state of much cleanliness and order ; but the building is so ill arranged that the male, debtors and criminals are confined all together, without any sepa
This indiscriminate mixture cannot fail to produce the worst consequences; of which the magistrates are sensible, and are now directing their attention to an alteration in the building, by which the fault may be corrected. The women's side of the pries son is much more commodious. All the prisoners have the advantage of airy yards to walk in : they are seldom chained: they are regularly visited by a clergyman, and by a medical man when nem cessary, The jail allowance is lamentably insufficientonly fourpence per day, without firing or clothing.
Those who have been once confined in this jail frequently return to it. This is the almost certain result of their not being classified and not being employed the punishment of one offence prepares them for the commission of another. '; $ ;!
LANCASTER COUNTY JAIL.*, : jos eil!_1,41 to
The ancient part of Lancaster Castle consists of four distinct towers. These towers, with a great mass of new building, form the present county jail. The whole is four hundred and nine yards in circumference. The county court and offices take up the west 4!!! po
Visited ninth month 20th, in company with C. Wilson, Esqzout" ? Visited uirtu moath 20th, in company with John Ford, pf Yealand, and Joseph Dockray of Lancaster,
front'; the remainder of the building is used wholly as a prison., You enter through the Gateway Tower, which is ancient and very beautiful, into a large court occupied by the debtors, and containing about an acre of ground. "The north side of the castle is allot. ted to male criminals, and consists of seven day-rooms, with sleeping-cells; and six yards converging to a point, at which is placed a small octaguni tower of three stories. This tower is occupied by the turnkeys, and commands a complete view over the several yards. In every yard is a reservoir of water, supplied from an engine-pump, which is worked by the prisoners. The yards are paved with flagstones, and the day-rooms and sleeping-cells are all of hewn stone, and fire-proof. The female prisoners are kept completely apart from the men, being confined on the south side of the prison. They are at present crowded into a very contracted space, and without any distinction of classes, but new buildings are about to be erected for them, which, when completed, will afford ample opportunity for inspection, classification, and labor,—the three great essentials for a good prison,
On the eastern side is the jailer's house, which commands a. general view over the interior of the prison.
The prison is kept in a condition of remarkable cleanliness; the sleeping-cells are well aired, the bedding is good, and no pains are spared to secure the health of those, who are confined here. If was intended that one only should sleep in each cell ; but the nunber of prisoners, who are now crowded into the jail, renders this excellent arrangement wholly impossible.
Their food is bread, gruel, and potatoes. Those who beliave well have also a weekly mess of broth with beef in it.
They are all well clothed, and the tried prisoners are distinguished from the untried, by dresses of a different color.
We saw not a chain in the prison. Fetters are never used in it, except for the refractory, and in extreme cases. There is in this prison an excellent infirmary, regularly
attended; also a convenient chapel, in which service is performed four times weekly, and in which the audience is properly classed, the women being separated from the men by a sereen across the room.
The chaplains have under their care a library of religious books for the use of the prisoners. No meansi appear at present to be adopted for the instruction of those amongst them, who are un able to read, },
No escape las taken place from this prison for many years buts this is owing rather to the kindness as well as vigilance of the governor, than to the security of the building....?? Lancaster Castle is made to answer the purpose not only of a county jail, but of a house of correction. It contains two classes
7199 of prisoners ; first, the untried, and those sentenced to death or transportation, and secondly, confiners, persons sent hither for terms of imprisonment and labor. The former of these classes is idle; the latter is employed. The number of the latter was at the time of our visit about one hundred, whom we found distributed in the various work-rooms, and busily occupied, under the care of three inspectors, in weaving, winding, shoe-making, tailor, ing, &c. All the clothing used in the prison is manufactured by these confiners, who are allowed one-third of their earnings for their own use. Of this third, they have three-fourths weekly, and one fourth when they leave the prison; an arrangement which might with great propriety bie exactly reversed. It appears by a statement received from 'Thomas Higgin, the governor, that, of those prisoners who pass their time in idleness, a much greater pro. portion come back again after being discharged, than of those who are employed. The fact is very important, and admits of an easy explanation. In the one case, the prisoners have constantly before them an useful and innocent object of attention;- in the other, they have nothing to dwell upon, but their own corrupt imaginations, In the one case, they probably become better; in the other, they certainly grow worse : - in the one case, therefore, the commission of new crimes may be prevented; in the other, it must be promoted.
The temployment of all the prisoners in this jail is, indeed, at object greatly to be desired. :: It has been suggested to me, thats were the present day-rooms, in the seven compartments already described, raised, and converted into work-shops, and new dayrooms built, adjoining to the octagon tower occupied by the turnkeys, the interior of the new rooms might be placed under inspection and the system of labor materially facilitated. The great difficulty, however, iseenasto have arisen from the practice prevailing ainongst the magistrátesy of sending persons for a term of imprisonment and dabor to Lancaster Castle, instead of to the separate and more regular houses of correction. In order to accommodate this eláss of prisoners, those who properly belong to the county jail arg very much crowded, and neither classification nor employment ca be effectually introduced among them.
Were chis difficulty removed, as I trusç it will be, the number of prisoners would be materially lessened ; and the most reasonable hopes might be entertained; both from the enlightened views of the governor, and from the facilities afforded by the prison, that this Castle would become, in an eminent degreex a house of refor mation, 22's purl, ll eura??? Iliw ?113710
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