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attention from their regular duties. As we approached the prison we observed a great majority of these windows crowned with spectators.' The great evil however here, as in the Bridewell at Edinburgh, is the excessive number of the prisoners as compared with the accommodations of the prison.

The principle of the Glasgow Bridewell is solitary confinement

one cell for one prisoner ; but now there are two persons in every cell. Thus the course of that evil communication which corrupts good manners" is perfectly easy aud uniuterrupted, and its consequences inevitable. There were at this time two hundred and twenty prisoners in the Bridewell; namely, sixty men, and one hundred and sixty women. » As the numbers are so great, it appears highly desirable that another house of correction should be erected; and then, that one should be allotted to men, the other entirely to women. William Brebner, the governor, who (like the governor of the Jail) is much devoted to his duties, informed us that he experienced no difficulty whatever in procuring for his prisoners a sufficiency of work. One effect of their being thus constantly employed is that the institution throws but a very trifling burthen upon the public. The whole expense of it during the first half-year of 1818, including all salaries, was 441. 6s. 10d. It will be remembered that two hundred prisoners were maintained in it.ro

It gave us great satisfaction that an opportunity was afforded' us, through the kindness of the magistrates, of forming in this city a Committee of Ladies, who have benevolently undertaken to visit and superintend the females both in the Jail and in the Bridewell. The object of the Committee is to instruct the ignorant, to provide the unemployed with work, to promote a daily reading of the Scriptures, and to watch over these criminals individually; not only when in prison, but, as far as possible, after they leave itu,

1

CARLISLE COUNTY JAIL, This jail is situated nearly opposite to the new and magnificent Court-houses, with which it forms a singular and melancholy con: trast. It is an old building, excessively limited in its accommodations, and unfit in almost all respects for the purpose to which it is applied.

" Pains are however taken to ensure the industry of these prisoners, by setting them such tasks of work as it is known they are able to perform. If these tasks are not completed, the prisoners are punished by the loss of a meal, which is found to have a powerful effect.

? Visited on the 15th of the ninth month in company with several magistrates,

You enter into a large court-yard containing nearly an acre of ground, and guarded only by a brick wall fifteen feet high. On your left is the prison; and on the right, the jailer's house and a small chapel, which admits of no separation during the time of service between the male and female prisoners. We were first introduced to that part of the jail, in which ihe debtors reside, and which consists of three well-sized rooms. In these they not only pass the day but sleep, in large companies. There is no separate accommodation for women debtors. The consequence is deplorable : when an unfortunate woman becomes involved in debt, and is arrested, --however respectable, however virtuous she may be, --she is compelled to live day and night with a number of men, who are utter strangers to her; or, if she prefer the sad alternative, with felons and criminals, the desperately wicked of her own sex. Where is the law wbich justifies the exposure of an innocent woman to so evideot and so terrible a contamination?

A fourth room, immediately connected with the debtors' apartments, is allotted to the confiners—to those, who for certain crimes have been sentenced to various terms of imprisonment.

There is, during the day, no separation whatever between this description of criminals and the debtors. Their rooms open one upon another, and the great court is the airing-ground common to both these classes. The female criminals of all descriptions, whether tried or untried, are confined in two small rooms, the one measuring sixteen feet by thirteen, the other sixteen feet by nine and a half. In these rooms the unfortunate women' pass both day and night, cook their victuals, wash their linen, and sleep on straw: they have the use of no airing-ground. Those, indeed, whose health requires it, have occasional permission to walk in the great court; but this liberty cannot be enjoyed except at the price of exposure to all the men in the prison.

In the remaining part of the building are confined the male fe.. lons, the tried and untried together. Their accommodations consist of a day-room twenty-two feet long by sixteen in breadth, four ill-ventilated sleeping-cells severally measuring nine feet by seven, and a small square court, separated from the large court by a double but open iron palisade.

Every sleeping-cell was fitted up with some straw, two blankets, and a rug. At the time of our visit, there were sixteen felons here, and four slept together in a cell. Sometimes the number of felous has amounted to forty: when they are thus numerous, a large proportion of them are obliged to sleep in their day-room.

This jail is white-washed twice in the year, and was at this time very cleanly. It is attended occasionally by a medical man, and once in the week by a chaplain. The prisoners are allowed no firing, clothing only in cases of emergency, and for their maintenunce not quite three pence-half-penny per day.

This allowance is cruelly small; for, except when bread is very cheap, it is absolutely insufficient for the due support of life. Small as it is, it is not the smallest allowance made in the jail. The debtors have from ninepence to one shilling and threepence per week; those committed for neglect of orders of bastardy, nothing. . The felons are heavily ironed, and are without any employment.

The reader will observe, that the hiost remarkable feature of the Carlisle jail is the total want of classification. No separation between the men and women debtors; none, during the day, between the debtors and confiners; none between the various descriptions of female offenders; none between the tried and untried felons. It may be added, that since the felons' yard is separated from the great court only by an open palisade, nine feet wide, the freest opportunity of communication with the felons is afforded not only to the debtors and confiners, but to any one, who happens to be walking in the court. This unchecked association ainongst the various classes of prisoners, connected as it is with a condition of complete idleness, must assuredly be an easy and a certain method of spreading corruption and producing crime. The introduction of improper articles into the prison is also peculiarly easy; for every stranger, who is admitted into the great court, may convey what he pleases to the debtors, the confiders, and, through the iron palisade, io the felons themselves. The quantity of ale which is said to he introduced into the jail is almost incredible, and is of course frequently productive of great disorder.

The Court-houses, which are very near the Jail, are superior in point of splendor and accommodation to almost any in the kingdom. It is much to be regretted that the erection of a new prison should not have been a prior object of attention : but I am informed that this also is in contemplations Certainly, measures cannot be too early taken to do away with an evil which is eating rapidly into the very vitals of the community.

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October 2nd, The following “ Remarks” were written in the month of July, but owing to some unexpected delays, they did not appear in the columns of the Morning Chronicle until the appear

and 27th of August, and 1st September; since their insertion, the anticipated rejection of the treaty for the cession of the Floridas by ihe king of Spain, has been realised, and given birth to various political speculations respecting the effect likely to be produced in the relations existing between the Court at Madrid and the United States of America in particular, and generally in the European cabinets.

The ultimate views of the United States upou this question have been prematurely avowed in their diurnal papers, and if disposed to impute the rejection of the treaty to British influence, from a desire on our part to acquire the Floridas, it is possible that they may anticipate us, by attempting their occupation; for this purpose there exists a secret act and resolution of the legislature, so far back as the Congress of 1811, by which “ the President is fully empowered to occupy any part, or the whole of the territory lying east of the river Perdido, and south of Georgia, in the event of an attempt to occupy the said territory, or any part thereof, by any foreign government or power;" and by the sanie aet and resolution, " he may employ any part of the Army and Navy of the United States, which he may deem necessary, for the purpose of taking possession of, and occupying the territory aforesaid, in order to maintain therein the authority of the United States." This secret authority was not pronulgated until the opening of the Congress of 1818, when the President in his speech declared it as his war

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