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person; the working-cells are also well adapted for their purpose, and are warmed by flues. This is a house of labor: most of the prisoners are employed in weaving linen, cotton, and woollen stuffs. When those who have been bred to handicraft trades are in custody, they are employed, as occasion requires, for the use of the prison, in carpenter's or painter's work, shoe-making, white-washing, &c. Some of the more trusty females are occupied in cooking and washing. The garden also is cultivated by the prisoners; and all the bedding and clothing used in the prison are manufactured with in its walls.

The produce of a prisoner's labor is applied to his own maintenance. If there be any surplus, as is commonly the case, it is either for the support of his family if he have one, or else it is given to him when his term of confinement is completed. He receives it in three parts; the first on his leaving the prison; the second and third, on a certificate of good conduct being received, at the expiration of six and twelve months respectively. The prisoners in this Bridewell are well clothed and fed: their bedding also is excellent, probably 'somewhat too comfortable--a straw mattress, a sheet, a pillow, and two double blankets. Care is taken to ensure the cleanliness of their persons, for they are all bathed once every week.

This Bridewell is regularly visited both by a surgeon and a chapa lain, the latter of whom collects the prisoners for the purpose of divine worship once on the first day of the week and once on another day. On the former of these days they are instructed and catechised, and wholesome regulations have been adopted for the maintenance of order amongst them during this weekly period of teisure. A school-master gives attendance for two hours daily, in order to instruct such of the prisoners as are unable to read and write.

Admirable as are many of the regulations of this Bridewell, and vastly superior as it is to those more miserable prisons where criminals are herded together in total idleness, there are nevertheless connected with it some unfavorable circumstances, which have bitherto prevented its being, in so great a degree as might be desired, a house of reformation. The first is, that the semicircular arrangement of the working cells, at the same time that it is so well calCulated for the purpose of inspection, enables the prisoners to see out of one cell into another, and thus gives the opportunity, notwithstanding much watchfulness on the part of the keepers, of improper and dangerous conversation. The second is, that the doors and windows of every two night-cells are so near to one another that the prisoners can converse freely together after they are locked up for the night. This of course they do, and without the possibility of detection or prevention. The third and principal source of evil is the inadequacy of the prison in point of size. There are in it only 52 working-rooms aud 144 sleeping-cells; it being intended for not more than 144 prisoners; but the persons committed to the Bridewell are at all times so very much more numerous, that both sleeping and working-cells are very improperly crowded, This gives rise, of course, to much evil communication, and greatly impedes the system of labor, on the regularity of which the use of the Bridewell maivly depends.

To meet this exigency, additional buildings are absolutely neces. sary. Were the present Bridewell appropriated to females, and another house of correction built for the men, the existing want of accommodation would be remedied, and that complete separation between the sexes, which is of such essential consequence, would in the best possible manner be effected.

Much benefit might also arise both in the Bridewell and the Jail at Edinburgh, from their being regularly visited by a commit. tee of benevolent and independent persons, who might provide instruction for the ignorant and employment for the idle, and miglit exercise over the prisoners individually that kind and Christian care, which would be the most likely means of introducing them, not only into serious reflection, but into the habits of virtue and respectability.

I am not willing to quit the subject of these two prisons without bearing my testimony, in conclusion, to the assiduity and buinanity of the two governors.

There are in Edinburgh two more prisons, neither of which requires very particular notice. The first is a LOCK-UP-HOUSE lately built, and allotted to four classes of prisoners--vagrants those who have been taken up, but are not yet committed persons confined for want of caution or bail—and criminals who have received the sentence of death and are awaiting its execution.

This prison appeared to us well adapted to the purposes for which it is intended. It is very secure, and affords sufficient op: portunity of classification; both the day-rooms and sleeping-cells are unexceptionable, and the bedding good. The jail allowance is sixpence per day. The room intended for persons under sentence of death is decent and pleasant; but we were sorry again to notice the iron bar, to which criminals under these afflicting circumstances are chained. Why should the sufferings of these wretched beings be enhanced by a method of confinement not only barbarous, but apparently wholly useless in so secure a prison ?

The OLD Jall in Canongate is now used only as a debtor's prison. We found it in a state of much cleanliness and order, ibę apartments both for the day and the night being by no means

uncomfortable; but the building is evidently much too contracted; and the prisoners, who were quite crowded together, are perpetually confined to the house; for there is no yard or airing-ground. This jail is visited weekly by a clergyman.

The magistrates of Edinburgh are now erecting on the east side of the Bridewell a new debtors' prison, in which the necessary accommodations will be provided to enable the prisoners to work at various handicraft trades. This building when completed will regder the prison in Canongate unnecessary, and will facilitate the further classification of criminals in the new jail.



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This prison, which, though built but a few years ago, is ingly defective, and in its present state may truly be said to teem with mischief, consists of two courts, between which is the jailer's house, and round them the buildings allotted to the various classes of prisoners. In these courts the prisoners are not permitted to walk, nor is there any other airing-ground in the prison. Those parts of it, in which the criminals are confined, consist of eight flats or stories, very similar to one another, four in each court. one of these flats there is a day-room measuring nineteen feet and a half by twelve, and a short gallery open to the prisoners, which on one side looks, as does the day-room, into one or other of the court-yards; both divisions of the prison having the same construction. On the other side of each gallery are ranged seven sleepingcells, measuring respectively six feet three inches by ten feet four. These sleeping-cells are very dark, and extremely ill ventilated; for they receive neither light nor air except from the gallery, and that only through a hole twelve inches in diameter cut in the stone above the door. When the doors of some of them, which contained prisoners locked up during the day by way of punishment, were thrown open to us, the sickly stench was so excessively offensive that entrance into the cells was nearly impossible. The cells in some of the flats were however more airy than those in others.

The day-rooms were on the whole cleanly, and are severally fitted up with a pipe of good water. There is also attached to each of them a water-closet-a provision, which from its rarity as well as importance, reflects no small credit on the architect. In most of the flats we observed a great many prisoners, amongst whom no other classification is attempted than the separation of the tried from the untries. These prisoners are allowed sixpence per day,

· Visited ninth month 9th, in company with Anthony Wigham of that city.

case, they

but no firing and no clothing. Many of them were miserably clad; they appeared in a remarkable degree careless and hardened, and far otherwise than healthy. They receive no instruction whatever, and live the miserable life of total idleness. As the windows of the several parts of the prison in each division look upon the same court-yard, the prisoners of all descriptions,--debtors and felons, males and females,-can see and hear one another, and maintain perpetual parley. I think I never witnessed a more melancholy spectacle. Idleness, clamor, and dissipation prevailed on every side of us; and when we first entered the prison, the mixed din of fiddling, laughing, and riotous vociferation, was truly appalling:

Only one flat is allotted to female criminals of every description. We found in it sixteen women, who appeared much crowded for want of more space; yet within the same limits are not unusually confined as many as thirty females. When this is the sleep four together, and, from the excessive want of ventilation in the sleeping-cells, must experience sufferings very nearly allied to suffocation.

To the debtors' part of ihe prison the most material objection is the want of sufficient separation between the men and the women. During the whole day they have the freest opportunities of intercourse together. There is no bath in this prison. Au infirmarý there is, but it is so insecure that it cannot be used. Exacily similar is the case with the chapel. The consequence of this last defect is lamentable in the highest degree; for alihough there are seldom less than two hundred prisoners in the jail, two hundred persons who of all others probably in the city stand most in need of spiritual help,—no public worship ever takes place amongst them; nor is any instruction known to these unhappy beings, but that, by which they contaminate and corrupt one another.

The result of the whole is, that this prison is become a fruitful source of very extensive evil. Vast numbers of offenders pass through it in the course of the year -- the number of criminals committed during the last three years amounting to three thousand and sixty-eight; and the jailer assured us that they uniformly leave the prison worse than when they entered it; settled in babits of idleness, devoted to their own corruptions, more than ready for the perpetration of new crimes. He reckons, that of those who have been once committed, two-thirds come back again.

Crimes have of late been rapidly increasing in Glasgow. The fact may be accounted for, partly by the vast increase of manufacturing establishments, partly by the large accession of uneducated Irish; but, perhaps, chiefly by the powerful machine of corruption, which I have now described.

We were received with great kindness in this city by several of the magistrates; men who have enlightened and liberal views, and who are truly zealous for every useful improvement. As their jail is a new one, it is evident that they are placed under very difficult circumstances; but although the faults in the building are many of them irreparable, I am confident that much of what is now objectionable in the arrangements of the prison, will be obviated by the care and ingenuity which these gentlemen are evidently disposed to direct to this most important object.


This extensive house of correction is built on nearly the same plan as the Bridewell at Aberdeen; for it consists of several fats or stories, each flat containing a long gallery with cells ranged on either side; except the highest flat, which is occupied by two large rooms, the one an infirmary, the other a chapel. There are also some thread mills attached to this Bridewell, in which a large number of prisoners are, during the day, constantly at work. Those who are not in the mills are also fully employed--the men chiefly in weaving, the women in preparing thread for the mills, ornamenting muslins, &c. All are well clothed, well fed, and provided with good bedding. They are visited at stated times by a clergyman, a medical man, and a school-master. Much attention is given to cleanliness: the whole house was, when we visited it, in a state of neatness; and the prisoners are obliged to wash frequently, and are bathed when they enter the prison. A Bible is placed in every sleeping-cell.

The profit of the prisoners' labor is applied to their own maintenance in the Bridewell; if there be a surplus, it is given to them when they are again set at liberty.

Of these regulations, which are generally excellent, the effect may be traced in the alteration for the better, which sometimes takes place in the character and habits of these prisoners, and which becomes conspicuous after they have quitted the prison and settled in common life. It must, however, be remarked, that there is much in this Bridewell to check all tendency to reform.

The prisoners are able to communicate with one another out of their respective cells by day and by miglit. During their hours of work it depends upon their own inclination whether they are industrious or otherwise, for constant inspection is impossible; and as their windows look over a small plain on to the public road or street, every little noise and every fresh object on the outside diverts their

Visited ninth month 10th, in company with Baillie Smith, James
Ewing (late Dean of Guild), and other gentlemen.



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