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is pointed out as the spot where Choo-foo-tsze angled at hisleisure hours.
The writer of this felt more interest and pleasure from a sight of this place, than from any thing else that occurred during the
Wednesday, November 19th. Reached Woo-ching-Chin, situated on the left bank of the Tan-ho, which flows by the capital of Keang-se and enters the Po-yang Lake.
Woo-ching-Chin is a great depôt for the commodities of various provinces. There are in the town very elegant Hwuy Kwan, or halls of merchants, from the same province.
There is also a very spacious and elegant temple, dedicated to a man whose name was Heu Chin Keun, who is deified, and is called « The happy lord of Keang-se."
His temple was by some Emperor denominated Wan-show Kung, which is the name by which it is now known. Here the front is decorated with various devices on porcelain, and with handsome masonry. A large court is formed in front, and a fine building raised on the opposite side for the public performance of plays.
November 21st. Arrived at Nan-chang Foo, the capital of Keang-se, where we had to quit the boats with which we had navigated the Yang-tsze Keang and the Po-yang lake. The remaining part of the journey was by the same road as the gentle men of Lord Macartney's Embassy.
Whilst at Nan-chang Foo, an alarming fire broke out in the evening in the suburbs, on the banks of the river. Our fireengines were offered to the Legate, who, with many professions of thanks, declined accepting them, as it was the duty of the local officers to see the fire extinguished, not his. In about the space of two hours they succeeded.
November 27th. The Legate sent a covered boat to take the Embassador, and any other gentlemen who chose to accompany him, to see a temple called Hwa Wang Meaou, “ The Temple of the King of Flowers." His Majesty is represented seated on a fantastic group of rocks, surrounded by gay divivities, male and female, for each month of the year. The figures were quite new, and painted in the most lively colors. The temple was supported by the salt merchants in the neighbourhood, who in an adjoining hall had placed an idol denominated Tsae-Shin, “ The God of Wealth." Before him was a stage for theatrical exhibitions, which are blended with the service of all the temples.
On the evening of the 27th reached a village called She-chih. In front of the boats saw an instance of the barsh usage to which the people in China are subjected from the police runners, who are armed and dressed like soldiers. A respectable-looking man, walking quietly away, was seized by the tail and the beard, and dragged away to receive. Ta-pan-tsze, “ A bambooing." On enquiring the cause, it was affirmed that he had Ma-kwan, “ used insolent language to an officer of the government."
At Nan-chang Foo, three hundred boats had been put in requi. sition for the Embassy, and hąd been detained two months. Having received no pay for a whole month, they appealed to Government for support, and had then to each boat 150 cash, that is about fourteen pence daily, given them.
December 2nd. Mr. Hayne's boat struck against a rock, and filled with water; the boatmen ran her on shore and saved eyery thing: his clothes and books were, however, much injured. In the evening the boat, already repaired, overtook the rest of the fleet, and was again taken possession of by the gentlemen who had been wrecked in her at noon.
The fleet now consisted of about a hundred boats, which, passing with their sails spread up the river Kan-keang, whose stream, clear as crystal, meanders at the foot of hills and mountains, formed a fine sight.
December 5th. All the boatmen in our fleet sent a petition to the Embassador, requesting a pecuniary gratuity to enable them to perform the usual rites, before passing the eighteen rocky rapids, called Shịh-på-tan. The Legate sent a Tan-sze, “ Master of the Rapids," or pilot, and a soldier, to assist in each boat. The river in this neighbourhood abounds with rocks just above water, the passage between which is frequently very narrow. The bed of the river is a ravine enclosed by hills and mountains, generally barren, but now and then clothed with firs, and occasionally a few trees of other kinds along the shore. The morning of the 7th set in with a cheerful sun, but became overcast with thick black clouds, which hung on the tops of the mountains, and gave the whole a wild gloomy appearance.
December 10th. All the boats were provided with new towropes, to drag the boats up the “Pillars of Heaven,” which is the name of a dangerous rapid. We saw a recent wreck of a fine boat as we ascended the rapid. In the evening arrived at Kanchow Foo, where two streams unite. One comes from the province of Füh-Këen, and the other, called the Western-river, from the mountain Mei-ling, which divides Canton from Keang-se,
Early the next morning walked half-way round the ramparts to an elegant Pagoda nine stories high. The external appearance was compared by De Guignes (but with little propriety) to the bamboo bonnets of p or Chinese piled on each other. Several gentlemen ascended the pagoda to view the surrounding country.
December 15th. Passed some very beautiful spots in the morn. ing. The stream is clear as possible. The bottom generally pebbly, The hills and plants on each side throw a dark hue upon the surface of the water, which runs a continually winding course. The numerous water-wheels described by former travellers, in constant motion and shaded by green foliage, along the banks of the limpid stream, delighted the eye.
The Legate has on two or three occasions of late ordered his own boatmen, and those of some other boats, to be beaten with twenty stripes for not getting their boats on with greater expedition. Those who dragged the boats were exposed to the rain from heaven, and walked a great part of the day up to the middle in water. That in times of perfect tranquillity (for a state of rebellion and anarchy does not apply)—that in a state of perfect tranquillity a poor man who has labored all day in the profession to which he is devoted, shall be liable at the close of the day to twenty blows upon his bare breast (a punishment at once ignominious and painful) merely because he could not bring his labors to the successful close which some others did, is really detestable. The minds which can inflict and the minds which can bear such treatment, how different from the minds of Englishmen!
December 18th. Arrived at Nan-gan-Foo. Here we had to disembark in order to pass the Mei-ling Mountain ; the first land journey which we had to take since leaving Tung-chow.
A Kung-kwan, « Public or Government lodging," was provided on shore. There were three houses. That intended for the Embassador was very good for a Chinese house. One of the others was that in which the Dutch Embassy had been lodged twenty years ago. The Frenchman who was of that party, had written his name on one of the wooden pannels of the window, with a black-lead pencil. The name is still perfectly legible: thus,
« de guines Tozy"
1795. Mr. Tozy was a Dutchman, seen by the persons of the present Embassy at Batavia. It was remarked, on seeing these names, " How frequently the Chinese wash their houses !”,
On the 19th the presents were carried across the mountain. The large glasses cost 120 Jaels to transport them over it.
December 20th. The Embassador and suite, some in chairs and some on horseback, performed the journey. The pass on the top of the mountain is about 30 Chinese leagues from Nan-gan-Foo, and 90 from Nan-heung Foo on the Canton side. There is á paved path all along the valley on each side of the hill. Towards the top the difficulty of ascent is lessened by steps, distant from each other about three or four feet. The path, cut down through the solid black rock, was made during the dynasty Tang, about a thousand years ago, by an individual who had retired from Court. A tablet still remains, which, it is said, was erected at the time, but it is now illegible. An arched gate-way of brick stands in the middle of the pass. It had a tower on the top of it, but it is now fallen down. On one side of the gate it is Keang-se province, on the other the Province of Kwang-tung (Canton). The view towards Keang-se is very wild and dreary. "Towards Canton, the view is intercepted by hills on each side of the passage, and a few trees give it a pleasing effect just as you pass through the gate; but none of the “ florishing fields and gardens” mentioned in the accounts of the last Embassy, as “ laid at the feet” of the traveller, are to be seen after getting through the defile just mentioned; the prospect is just as dreary and barren as on the Keang-se side of the mountain.
On the sides of the rock in the pass are various inscriptions cut out. Těěn le jin tsing, “ Heavenly principles and humane feelings," apparently applied to the man who made the pass, appear in very large characters. His image is placed in a Temple on the - Canton side of the gate, and is worshipped with divine honors. In the temple a. Mei-hwa Shoo, “ Mei flower tree," was in full blossom. From this tree the name Mei-ling, “ the Mountain of the Mei-flower," is derived.
Dec. 2 1st. At Nan-heung Foo the Embassy again embarked in small boats, the river being extremely shallow.
Dec. 26th. At Chaou-chow Foo removed to larger boats, in which on the first of January 1817 we arrived at Canton.
Captain Maxwell in his barge, attended by about twenty ships' boats, filled with officers and gentlemen, came to meet the Embassador. The American Consul B. C. Wilcocks, Esquire, joined the party in a boat carrying the American colors.
In the evening his Lordship landed in State at a Temple called Hae-chang-sze, situated on an islet opposite the European factories at Canton. It had been fitted up in a most splendid manner, in a style partly Chinese and partly English, under the direction of J. B. Urneston, Esquire, of the Select Committee of supracargoes.' In the evening his Lordship took his New-year's dinner with a large party of Englishmen at the Honorable Company's Factory. The gentlemen of the Embassy were delighted to meet again their countrymen, who had long anxiously expected them. Every heart was glad.
January '1st. The Legate waited on the Embassador to congratulate him on his arrival. Several days were occupied in arranging the etiquette of an interview with the Viceroy:
On the 7th he, the Foo-yuen, and the Hoppo, were received by the Embassador and two Commissioners. He brought, carried by thirty-six bearers, in a little yellow sedan chair, a letter from the Emperor of China to the Prince Regent. Lord Amherst, Sir George Staunton, and Mr. Ellis, had the precedence resigned to them by the Viceroy and other two officers.
The Viceroy mentioned that the duties of the Hewitt had been remitted in consideration of her bringing out the presents. He next adverted to his Imperial Majesty's bounty in permitting the trade for so great a length of time. The Embassador said, he believed it was mutual benefit to both countries.
The Viceroy wished that obligation and dependance should be acknowledged ; but when he found that such a tone was unpleasant, he said, “Well, we will not speak on subjects that may excite angry feelings-- may amity long continue !" The Embassador wished him health and prosperity, and so took his leave. An entertainment was presented in the name of the Emperor. ·
January 9th. The Embassador returned the Legate's visit. The old gentleman was cheerful and chatty, as usual. A few days after, on the invitation of Sir George Staunton, he met the Embas sador at the Factory, and sat down to an entertainment with a large party of officers and gentlemen.
January 19th. He waited on Lord Amherst to take his final leave, and expressed a hope that the Embassador would represent matters to his own Sovereign in a way calculated to preserve peace and goodwill between the two countries.
On the 20th the Embassy left Canton. His Lordship and suite went to Whampoa in Captain Maxwell's barge. The band and guard preceded, and two lines of boats followed. The Viceroy placed himself in a boat on the river where his Lordship had to pass in order to take leave of him. Numerous salutes were fired all the
down the river. January 23d. The Embassador and suite landed at Macao. Chinese troops were marched into the town to receive his Lordship on the beach.
Before he sailed an interesting document was obtained. It was a manifesto written by the Emperor's own hand, and addressed to the whole world, to foreign nations as well as to his Tartar and Chinese subjects. In this he expresses regret and shame for what was done : to take blame to himself was all that he could suffer, but the courtiers who had deceived him he delivered to be tried
the proper tribunal : they decreed that the Duke should have his