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NOTE 1.-PAGE 13.

Descend, prophetic Spirit, that inspirest

The human soul,' &c.
Not mine own fears, nor the prophetic Soul
Of the wide world dreaming on things to come.'

Shakspeare's Sonnets.

NOTE 2.-P. 28.

much did he see of Men.' At the risk of giving a shock to the prejudices of artificial society, I have ever been ready to pay homage to the aristocracy of nature ; under a conviction that vigorous human-heartedness is the constituent principle of true taste. It may still, however, be satisfactory to have prose testimony how far a Character, employed for purposes of imagination, is founded upon general fact. I, therefore, subjoin an extract from an author who had opportunities of being well acquainted with a class of men, from whom my own personal knowledge emboldened me to draw this portrait.

• We learn from Cæsar and other Roman Writers, that the travelling merchants who frequented Gaul and other barbarous countries, either newly conquered by the Roman arms, or bordering on the Roman conquest, were ever the first to make the inhabitants of those countries familiarly acquainted with the Roman modes of life, and to inspire them with an inclination to follow the Roman fashions, and to enjoy Roman conveniences. In North America, travelling merchants from the Settlements have done and continue to do much more toward civilizing the Indian patives, than all the missionaries, papist or protestant, who have ever been sent among them.

It is farther to be observed, for the credit of this most useful class of men, that they commonly contribute, by their personal manners, no less than by the sale of their wares, to the refinement of the people among whom they travel. Their dealings form them to great quickness of wit and acuteness of judgment. Having constant occasion to recommend themselves and their goods, they acquire habits of the most obliging attention, and the most insinuating address. As in their peregrinations they have opportunity of contemplating the manners of various men and 28

325

various cities, they become eminently skilled in the knowledge of the world. As they wander, each alone, through thinly-inhabited districts, they form habits of reflection and of sublime contemplation. With all these qualifications, no wonder, that they should often be, in remote parts of the country, the best mirrors of fashion, and censors of manners; and should contribute much to polish the roughness, and soften the rusticity of our peasantry. It is not inore than twenty or thirty years since a young man going from any part of Scotland to England, of purpose to carry the pack, was considered as going to lead the life and acquire the fortune of a gentleman. When, after twenty years' absence, in that honorable line of employment, he returned with his acquisitions to his native country, he was regarded as a gentleman to all intents and purposes.'

Heron's Journey in Scotland, Vol. i. p. 89.

NOTE 3.-P. 87.

Lost in unsearchable Eternity!" Since this paragraph was composed, I have read with so much pleasure, in Burnet's Theory of the Earth, a passage expressing corresponding sentiments, excited by objects of a similar nature, that I cannot forbear to transcribe it.

“Siquod verở Natura nobis dedit spectaculum, in héc tellure, verè gratum, et philosopho dignum, id semel mihi contigisse arbitror; cum ex celsissima rupe speculabundus ad oram maris Mediterranei, hinc æquor cæruleum, illinc tractus Alpinos prospexi; nihil quidem mugis dispar aut dissimile, nec in suo genere, magis egregium et singulare. Hoc theatrum ego facilè prætulerim Romanis cunctis, Græcisve; atque id quod natura hic spectandum exhibet, scenicis ludis omnibus, aut amphitheatri certaminibus. Nahil hic elegans aut venostum, sed ingens et magnificum, et quod placet magnitudine suå et quadam specie immensitatis. Hinc intuebar maris æquabilem superficiem, usque et usque diffusam, quantum maximum oculorum acies ferir potuit ; illinc disrup tissimam terræ faciem, et vastas moles variè elevata aut depressas, erectus, propondentes, reclinatas, coacervatas, omdi situ inæquali et turbido. Placuit, ex hac parte, Naturæ unitas et simplicitas, et inexhausta quaedam planities; ex alterà, multiformis confusio magnorum corporum, et insanæ rerum strages: quas cum intuebar, non urbis alicujus aut oppidi, sed confracti mundi rudera, ante oculos habere mihi visus sum.

In singulis ferè montibus erat aliquid insolens et mirabile, sed præ cæteris mihi placebat illa, quâ sedebam, rupes; erat maxima et altissima, et quà terram respiciebat, molliori ascensu altitudinem suam dissiinulabat: quà vero mare, horrendum præceps, et quasi ad perpendiculum facia, instar parietis. Prætereà facies illa marina adeò erat lævis ac uniformis (quod in rupibus aliquando observare licet) ac si scissa fuisset á sumro ad imum, in illo plano; vel terræ motu aliquo, aut fulmine, divulsa.

Ima pars rupis erat cava, recessusque habuit, et saxeos specus, euntes in vacuum montem ; sive natura pridem factos, sive exesos marh, et undarum crebris ictibus : In hos enim cum impetu ruebant et fragore, æstuantis maris fluctus; quos iterum spumantes reddidit antrum, et quasi ab imo ventre evomuit.

Dextrum latus montis erat præruptum, aspero saxo et mudâ caute; Binistrum non adeò neglexerat Natura, arboribus utpote ornatum : et prope pedem montis rivus limpidæ aquæe prorupit; qui cùm vicinam vallem irrigaverat, lento motu serpens, et per varios meandros, quasi ad protrahendam vitam, in magno mari absorpius subito periit. Denique in summo vertice promontorii, comninode eminebat saxum, cui insidebam contemplabundus. Vale augusta sedes, Rege digna: Augusta rupes semper mihi memoranda! P. 89. Telluris Theoria sacra, &c. Editio secunda.

Nork 4-P. 113.

mun

Of Mississippi, or that Northern Stream.

supposed to improve by going out into the World, by visiting London. Artificial man does; he extends with his sphere; but, alas! that sphere is microscopic; it is formed of minutiæ, and he surrenders his genuine vision to the artist, in order to embrace it in his ken. His bodily senses grow acute, even to barren and inhuman pruriency; while bis mental become proportionally obtuse. The reverse is the Man of Mind: he who is placed in the sphere of Nature and of God, might be a mock at Tailersall's and Brooks's, and a sneer at St. James's : he would certainly be swallowed alive by the first Pizarro that crossed him :-But when he walks along the river of Amazons; when he rests his eye on the unrivalled Andes; when he measures the long and watered savannah; or contemplates, from a sudden promontory, the distant, vast Pacificand feels himself a freeman in this vast theatre, and commanding each ready produced fruit of this wilderness, and each progeny of this stream -his exaltation is not less than imperial. He is as gentle, too, as he is great: his emotions of tenderness keep pace with his elevation of sentiment; for he says, “These were made by a good Being, who, unsought by me, placed me here to enjoy them. He becomes at once a child and a king. His mind is in himself; from hence he argiles, and from hence he acts, and he argues unerringly, and acts magisterially: his mind in himself is also in his God; and therefore he loves, and therefore he soars.'-From the notes upon The Hurricane, a Poem, by William Gilbert.

The Reader, I am sure, will thank me for the above quotation, which, Chough from a strange book, is one of the tinest passages of modern English prose.

NOTE 5.-P. 121.

'Tis, by comparison, an easy task

Earth to despise,' &c. See, upon this subject, Paxter's most interesting review of his own opinions and sentiments in the decline of life. It may be found (lately reprinted) in Dr. Wordsworth's Erdesiastical Biography.

NOTE 6.-P. 123.

Alas! the endowment of immortal Power,

Is matched unequally with custom, time,' 8.66 This subject is treated at length in the ode-Intimations of Immortality.

NOTE 7.-P. 127.

"Knowing the heart of Man is set to be.' &c. The passage quoted from Daniel is taken from a poem addressed to the Lady Margaret, Countess of Cumberland, and the two last lines, printed in Italics, are by him translated from Seneca. The whole Poem is very beautiful. I will transcribe four stanzas from it, as they contain an admirable picture of the state of a wise Man's mind in a time of public commotion.

Nor is he moved with all the thunder-cracks
Of tyrant's threats, or with the surly brow
Of Power, that proudly sits on others' crimes;
Charged with more crying sins than those he checks.
The storms of sad confusion that may grow
Up in the present for the coming times,
Appal not him; that bath no side at all,
But of himself, and knows the worst can fall.
Although his heart (so near allied to earth)
Cannot but pity the perplexed state
Of troublous and distressed mortality,
That thus make way unto the ugly birth
Of their own sorrows, and do still beget
Afliction upon Imbecility:
Yet seeing thus the course of things must run,
He looks thereon not strange, but as fore-done.
And whilst distraught ambition compasses,
And is encompassed, while as craft deceives,
And is deceived: whilst man doth ransack man,
And builds on blood, and rises by distress;
And th’ Inheritance of desolation beaves
To great expecting hopes: He looks thereon,
As from the shore of peace, with unwet eye,
And bears no venture in Impiety.
Thus, Lady, fares that man that hath prepared
A rest for his desires; and sees all things
Beneath him; and hath learned this book of man,
Full of the notes of frailty; and compared
The best of glory with her sufferings:
By whom, I see, you labor all you can
To plant your heart! and set your thoughts as near
His glorious mansion as your power can bear.

NOTE 8.--P. 182.

Or father, as we stand on holy earth

And have the dead around us.'
Leo. You, Sir, could help me to the history

Or half these graves ?
Priest

For eight-score winters past,
With what I've witnessed, and with what I've heard,
Perhaps I might;
By turning o'er these hillocks one by one,
We two could travel, Sir, through a strange round;
Yet all in the broad highway of the world.

See The Brothers.

NOTE 9.-P. 192.

* And suffering Nature grieved that one should die.'

Southey's Retrospect.

NOTE 10.-P. 194.

* And whence that tribute ? wherefore these regards ?' The sentiments and opinions here uttered are in unison with those expressed in the following Essay upon Epitaphs, which was furnished by me for Mr. Coleridge's periodical work, The Friend; and as they are dictated by a spirit congenial to that which pervades this and the two succeeding books, the sympathizing reader will not be disappointed to see the Essay here annexed.

ESSAY UPON EPITAPHS.

It needs scarcely be said, that an Epitaph presupposes a Monument, upon which it is to be engraven. Almost all nations have wished that certain external signs should point out the places where their dead are interred. Among savage tribes unacquainted with letters this has most

been done either by rude stones placed near the graves, or by mounds of earth raised over them. This custom proceeded obviously from a twofold desire; first, to guard the remains of the deceased from irrever ent approach or from savage violation: and, secondly, to preserve their memory. “Never any,' says Camden, neglected burial but some savage nations; as the Bactrians, which cast their dead to the dogs; some varlet philosophers, as Diogenes, who desired to be devoured of fishes; some dissolute courtiers, as Mucenas, who was wont to say, Non tunulum curo; sepelit natura relictos.

I'm careless of a grave:-Nature her dead will save.' As soon as nations had learned the use of letters, epitaphs were inscribed upon these monuments; in order that their intention might be more surely and adequately fulfilled. I have derived monuments and

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