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ing the bars and the covering box and the wooden parts of the trestles will be made in the country. I suggest that rough levelling screws may be desirable for the feet of the trestles, specimens of which you will see in Washington, as also of supporting plates, which may be made of wood, the joints crossing and the middle cut out. Comparing apparatus for bars, (Saxton's pyrometer;) simple miciem and spring; scale; small telescope, with cross hairs-abutting piece of metal, with screw; stonecutter's tools, mason's ditto; ten-inch Gambey theodolite; six-inch also, if disposable, but not essential; reconnoitring telescope, with divided stand and heliotrope fixtures, (my party;) auxiliary heliotrope, (from my party.)
Topographical.-Plane table and fixture, two standard chains, level, compass, and stand; reconnoitring compass.
Astronomical.-Transit instrument, (C. S., from Professor Kendall, Philadelphia, 45 inch transit, value of level;) zenith telescope from my party; two large lamps; small ditto, with instrument; two extra for marks, (bull's eye;) screw-drivers, wrenches, pins, stops, (send to office containing sizes;) chronometers, six-four by one opportunity, two by the other; two rated to sidereal time, four mean solar, (procured;) sextant, and artificial horizon.
Meteorological instruments.-Barometers, two," transportable"-one of Alexander, at Green's in Baltimore, (inquire of Mr. Boutelle or Captain Lee;) one of Hassler from office, to be placed in cabin of vessel; four small thermometers for barometer; two small ditto; naked bulbs for evaporating point; four for temperature of air, in cases. (See Professor Henry about supply of meteorological instruments for stations.)
Nails, iron, (cast and wrought,) and copper; screws, glass, leather, hinges.
Magnetic instruments.-Declenometer at office; (must be examined and used first and coefficients obtained-Davidson;) as also a magnetometer for intensity; dip circle, (Gambey, if it comes, or Robinsou, now in my camp.) Tent for magnetics, with copper-Mr. Ruth's.
Let me have an estimate of the cost of articles to be purchased, at your earliest convenience, the approval of which will put you in funds for your purchases. The estimate may be in part only, or in whole, as suits you best.
Party.-Sub-assistant Davidson, who is well versed in the practice of astronomical and magnetic observations, and has a general acquaintance with the work of the survey, will be detailed as your assistant; Mr. William Humphreys will accompany you as aid. You should take two or three men from this side, two to go out with the instruments; and perhaps unavoidable delays may require the three to be so sent.. The number of your party on the other side must depend upon circumstances. I rely upon your exercising great economy. It will be better to use men of the country than to take out men, except a nucleus for the party, which should be of the better sort, and of men who had been trained in our parties on this side. Lavalle will be a good person to send round with the astronomical instruments and equipage. Moore will also serve you well, and is a seaman besides. The persons and instruments sent by the mail-boat will probably reach Panama before the others.
About times and opportunities for sending, I expect further information from you. As much as can be ready by the 15th October should be col
lected at New York and sent out by the quartermaster's steamer. If any official steps are necessary, you will advise me.
Equipage and astronomical instruments (including four of the chronometers) can certainly be ready, and perhaps base apparatus or theodolite.
Reconnoitring telescope, level, compass, plane table, chain, tools, stationery, books, can certainly be ready; leaving only a small bulk of articles behind.
I want your suggestions in regard to supplies of articles of provisions or others from this side-say, Unkonoonuc to October 1, to New York. Phildelphia office-say, 5th. New York again, 12th; (articles all collected.) Magnetic observations with Davidson. Articles collected for November 1, New York base; to South Carolina, to assist replacing.
Mr. Davidson is now at New Harmony; will leave there on the 1st of October and proceed to Philadelphia; his address is Frankford Road, above Oxford street, Kensington. He will receive directions from me to be at your disposal. Mr. Humphreys is in Washington. Lavalle is also in Washington. Moore with Mr. Boutelle, with whom communicate, as he is employed in his party.
The work in section X will be executed upon the same principles and by the same methods with that in the sections with which you are already familiar on the eastern coast. Important positions will be fixed by astronomical observations. It will be desirable at once, perhaps, to fix upon a site or sites for astronomical observations, such as will certainly come into connexion with the triangulation. There should be as few and small reductions to the station as practicable. The site to be determined by importance of locality, or by probable beginning of regular work there; or, if needs be, by facilities for working latitudes by zenith telescope. Time by transits. Moon culminations, by transit, for longitude. Occultations, with reconnoitring telescope, for ditto. Azimuths by theodolite and elongations of polaris or other circumpolar star. By azimuths of stars at rising and setting. Difference longitude, where admits of it, of distant points by chro
Magnetic observations should be made in common with the astronomical.
A general reconnoissance of the coast of Oregon should be made. as soon as practicable; the minute reconnoissance to follow the base and triangulation which it develops. As it is exceedingly important to produce results, you are authorized to invert the usual process when you think it desirable. To measure a suitable local base and make a local survey, which will come into the general plan-subsequently determining the local latitude and longitude by the best means in your power-a hydrographic party will follow you closely, if my expectations in regard to appropriations and facilities for the work are realized. I can hardly venture to sketch a plan of operations; but suppose that you reach Columbia river in the spring, proceed to Puget's sound, (I will endeavor to procure letters for the authorities of the Hudson's Bay and Puget's Sound Company, and will procure letters to the revenue marine establishment to furnish you facilities,) examine shores, establish observatory, make reconnoissance, and perhaps measure local base and survey; a general reconnoissance. It will be an advantage to have several astronomical points which are well connected by A'u to eliminate errors of locality. The
longitudes are the most tedious part, as a year's culminations and occultations will not do more than give an approximate result. If these are made at points well connected geodetically or by chronometers, they will do as well as if made at one station; indeed better, as eliminating local action. I say nothing now about chronometer expeditions across, because we know so little of the facilities or difficulties of communicating, and the facilities are increasing every day. Keep this subject in mind, however. Furnish Mr. Downes the latitudes and longitudes of several pointssay Columbia river, Puget's sound, perhaps others--and request him to compute the predictions for occultations for the next two years for you, from April 1, 1849. His address is John Downes, Walnut street, Philadelphia.
Write to him as soon as you can, in my name, and ask him to let you have results by December 1.
The sooner we can have some harbor maps and sketches of general reconnoissance and information of interest to communicate to Congress and the public, the better. Much of your ultimate success depends upon timely communication. Let me hear from you by every opportunity; and besides the regular formal reports, write very freely, public letters or private ones, at my disposal. I do not wish you to confine your remarks to matters relating to the land work until the hydrographers are with you, but to give any information which may be of interest, and when no regular authority has got charge of procuring it. Of course, when the regular system of division of labor in the survey, or out of it, obtains, I do not desire to suggest interference. Your known qualities make me leave this an open subject, only limited by your discretion. You will forward your accounts in the usual forms as frequently as practicablemonthly when practicable, and not passing over a quarter if it can be avoided without great inconvenience.
Take your vouchers in triplicate, and send two sets by different oppor tunities, and keep one by you in case of accident to the others. I await your information in regard to the best mode of transmission of funds, the amount you wish to take with you, based upon your estimates and expenses, the form in which you wish it to be furnished. If an estimate to the close of the fiscal year, July, 1849, will carry you certainly through, it would be best to present that for my action before you leave here; then a provisional estimate for the next year, upon which I can act later; and if I should not hear from you, Mr. Hein will make such arrangements in regard to account for salary, &c., as you desire for yourself and Mr. Davidson. For note of books to be kept, and of copies to be made and sent to the office, and of disposal of originals, see paper A.
With hearty wishes for your success, yours, truly and respectfully,
JAMES S. WILLIAMS, Esq.,
Assistant U. S. Coast Survey.
COAST SURVEY OFFICE, Washington, January 25, 1849.
SIR: Your first duty in section X, to which you have been directed to repair in the instructions of August and September last, will be to deter mine whether a survey, or merely a reconnoissance, will be necessary at the mouth of the Columbia river. This you will execute in connexion with Lieutenant Commanding W. P. McArthur, jointly with whom you will also decide the question whether the light-houses on Cape Disappointment and Point Adams, provided for in the territorial bill relating to Oregon, shall be constructed or not, their location, character, and advantages, accessories required, and any other points of interest, reporting to me your results in regard to light-houses, or of reconnoissance or survey, as early as practicable.
The movement of trade in Oregon, the facilities for entrance to the ports, and other relative local advantages, will determine the question of the point to begin the survey, and I refer this to the joint decision of Lieutenant Commanding McArthur and yourself.
Should Columbia river or Puget's sound be selected, you will establish an astronomical and magnetic station there, and proceed with the measurement of a local base, with a secondary triangulation, and furnish shore line for the hydrography as early as practicable.
I will expect to hear from you by every opportunity. I enclose a letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, directing the officers of the revenue, and others connected with the department, to furnish you such facilities as may not interfere with the discharge of their regular duties. I have applied for a letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to Governor Lane, one from the chargé d'affaires of Great Britain to the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company, and for a copy of so much of the instructions of Captain Alexander V. Fraser, in command of the revenue brig Lawrence, as refers to facilities to the coast survey. When they are received, they will be forwarded to you at New York.
Captain R. P. Hammond, United States army, and Sub-assistant Joseph S. Ruth, have been directed to report to you for duty.
I expect you to take with you the most authentic maps and charts of the western coast, and to make such corrections in them as your opportunities may permit, and as will not interfere with the instructions for work in Oregon.
I will write to you in New York in regard to twin day observations in connexion with Toronto, Cambridge, and Chili.
Yours, respectfully and truly,
JAMES S. WILLIAMS, Esq.,
Assistant U. S. Coast Survey.
A. D. BACHE,
NORFOLK, October 27, 1848.
SIR: I have been directed by the Treasury Department to make arrangements for commencing the survey of the western coast of the United States. A land party has been for some time organizing under the charge of assistant James S. Williams. I am directed also to organize a hydrographic party to accompany or speedily to follow the land party, and you have been assigned to the command of the party. You will please, therefore, make all preliminary arrangements in conformity with oral instructions. already received, or such as may suggest themselves as proper to you under circumstances, observing the usual routine in regard to estimates, &c. If no more suitable vessel for your purpose can be obtained, the schooner Ewing, the transfer of which from the revenue service has been directed by the Secretary of the Treasury, will be assigned to you. The fitting out of this vessel and her despatch at as early a moment as prac'icable is desirable-say before the last week of November. I do not deem it desirable that you should make the voyage in the vessel, as you cannot complete work now in hands, nor so well seize the most prominent objects of the western work, as by making the journey over the isthmus and joining the vessel at Panama or San Francisco.
The specific duties required of you will be stated later in instructions. You are authorized to go to New York, in connexion with the transfer of the Ewing, at such time as you may deem best.
I leave to a later day directions in regard to the closing of the work on Albemarle sound, having already communicated my views orally to you. Very respectfully,
Lt. Com. W. P. MCARTHUR,
A. D. BACHE,
U. S. Navy, As istant Coast Survey.
COAST SURVEY OFFICE,
SIR: Under the preliminary instructions of October 27, 1848, you have already attended to the organization of a hydrographic party of the coast survey for section X, to the preparation of the schooner Ewing for sailing, to her despatch, to instruments, books, &c., to estimates, and similar preliminary matters. It remains to give more special instructions in regard to localities and objects of work. All the general instructions, scientific and business, for the coast survey, will be in full force as far as they apply to the circumstances of the service in which you will be engaged. The frequent communications which I expect to receive from you will de velop a system of operations which may take the place of the temporary
one now necessary.
Your first duty in section X will be to determine whether a survey, or merely a reconnoissance, will be necessary at the mouth of the Columbia. river: this you will execute in connexion with assistant James S. Williams,