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or attributes of the human being should be regarded as properly comprehended under the above denomination, the educator would do well, here as elsewhere, to advert to the primitive signification of the term which is employed to designate the class of faculties to which it is applied. At every step of his progress in the study of man as a being capable of systematic development, the teacher finds a guiding light perpetually emanating from the primary sense of the terms which constitute the nomenclature of intellectual philosophy, in its

nalysis of the human faculties. These terms are often highly figurative, and hence peculiarly suggestive with reference whether to distinctness of classification, or to purposes of culture and development. In no case does this remark apply more forcibly than in the present. The term "expression,” (pressing out,) implies, in the first instance, the existence of something within, which, under the action of a force, working whether from within or from without, is pressed out, and thus rendered external, palpable, or perceptible.

Referring this term to the phenomena of human experience, we derive, from its primary and figurative sense, the inference, or implication, that man is endued with the power of giving an external manifestation to his internal conditions of thought or feeling. The form of this manifestation may be that of attitudes and actions of the body, changes in the aspect of the countenance, effects on the tones of the voice, or efforts in the organs of articulation, and modifications of the accents of speech; it may appear in imitative acts, in suggestive graphic delineations, or in intelligible written characters. But in all cases, it is the representative expression (pressing out,) of what has been impressed, or is present, within.—The inward working may be that of a feeling, an affection, an emotion, or a passion : it may be that of an impressive idea, or of a thought, an opinion, or a sentiment. But the result is invariably an outward effect, audible or visible.

Whatever power or faculty, therefore, has an agency in the process of thus giving an external manifestation to an internal mental condition, will be appropriately comprehended under the designation "expressive;" and the classification will be exhaustive and complete, if it include all those mental states, acts, or operations which give form to thought or feeling. The preceding enumeration of the expressive faculties, however, is intended to present only those which are prominently active in the ordinary conditions of humanity, and which are the principal subjects of disciplinary training, in the processes of education.

1. Emotion: its Offices in Expression.—Emotion is the natural language of that sensibility which tends to render man conscious of

No. 8.-(VOL. III. No. 1.1-4.

himself, which serves to unite him, by a law of sympathy, with other beings as well as with those of his own race, and which, as a stimulus to his power of will, impels him to the various forms of salutary and pleasurable, or injurious and destructive action. Without this power, ("emotion,"--moving outward,) man might, indeed, possess the profoundest capacity of feeling, the utmost depth of thought, the grandest or the most beautiful forms of imagination. His whole inner world might be consciously a scene of ideal glory. But, to his fellow man, he would be mute and unintelligible. Self-contained and solitary, the individual would be as destitute of sympathy as of expression, and live unappreciated and uninterpreted, because incommunicative and unintelligible.

Emotion, therefore, we find is not left wholly at the discretion or the control of man, as a purely voluntary power. Its first and all its strongest manifestations are spontaneous and involuntary. It is the natural and irrepressible language of that wondrous capacity of pleasure and pain with which the human being is invested, in consequence of the susceptive sensibility with which his Creator has seen fit to enliven and to protect his nature.

Emotion, as the natural expression of sympathy, renders feeling legible and audible, and thus enables man instinctively to utter or to interpret the language of the heart; as an intimation of the will, it enables him to read the disposition and intentions, friendly or hostile, of his fellow beings. It is an early instrument of power to the helplessness or the sufferings of infancy, while it proclaims the presence of pain, and brings to the little patient the ready sympathy and remedial aid of the mother. It expresses and attracts the sympathetic affections of childhood and youth. It gives eloquence to the speech of man, warmth to the cordial welcome of friendship, or fire to the hostility of hatred. It melts in pity and compassion for suffering; it glows with indignation at oppression and wrong; it bends in humility and adoration before Infinite majesty, and in reverence to human worth ; or it looks haughtily down on the lowly, spurns the petitioner for mercy, and tramples on the weak and the unresisting. Its power for good or evil is unspeakable in all that involves the moral or the intellectual character of human utterance.

The Forms of Emotion.—These are as various as the mental relations of man.

It is Love, in the instincts of affection ; Wonder, in those of the intellect; Awe, in those of the spirit; Admiration, in those of sentiment ; Joy and Grief, to the heart; Hatred and Revenge, in the malignant passions ; Ardor and Enthusiasm, in the aspirations of the soul; Courage and Exultation, in conflict; Fear and

Terror, in danger ; Embarrassment, Confusion, and Shame, in failure or defeat; Anguish, in pain ; Contrition or Remorse, in conscious guill; Agony and Despair, in utter ruin ; Serenity, Tranquillity, and Peace, in conscious rectitude; Calmness and Composure, in selfcontrol ; Sorrow and Gladness, in sympathy; Laughter, in mirth; Caricature, in humor ; Gloom, in melancholy.

Effects of Emotion.—Its aspects and its traits are as numerous as the ever-changing moods of the "many-sided mind;" and its power of expression ranges through all degrees of force, from the gentle half-whisper of confiding love, or the accents of a mother's tenderness, to the scream of madness and the burst of rage. It moves to deeds of gentleness and mercy, as consciously pleasing acts dictated by the principle of duty; and it prompts to the perpetration of crimes at the thought of which humanity shudders. In all circumstances it becomes an expressive language of indescribable power,--a power for the exercise of which man is laid under responsibleness the most appalling. Its genial effects carry man beyond the limits of his nature, and enable him to approximate to the benignity of an angel; and its malignant workings invest him with the character of a fiend.

Emotion, the Inspiration of Language.—Emotion, as the natural, involuntary, or irrepressible manifestation of feeling, is, in itself, the primary form as well as cause of expression. The writhings and the outcries of pain, the tears and the wailings of sorrow, the smiles and the sweet tones of pleasure, the leaping and the laughter of exuberant joy, the exultant attitudes and shouts of triumph, the frown, the harsh tone, and the blow of anger, are all a universally intelligible language. But emotion is also the power which gives life, and force, and effect to voluntary and deliberate utterance, not only in the tones of spoken language but in the burning words which the glowing heart prompts to the pen of the eloquent writer, and which, when read from the mouldering parchment or the crumbling tablet, ages after they were written, have still the power to stir men's blood,“ with the sound of a trumpet.” It inspires the modern youth with the eloquence of Demosthenes, in the words with which he “fulmined over Greece ;" it kindles the heart of the student in his “still removed place,” with the fire and the shout and the fierceness of the battle scenes of Homer; it appalls him with the spectacle of the victims of inexorable fate, in the defiant appeals of the suffering Prometheus, as he writhes on his rock of torture,- in the superhuman agonies of the doomed Orestes,-in the wailings of the guiltless Edipus, when he is awakened to the complicated horrors which he has unwittingly drawn down upon himself and upon the very authors of his being.


It is the same expressive power, in its more genial forms, which lalls the youthful reader into the dreamy repose of the pastoral scenes of the eclogue, where

“Every shepherd tells his tale

Under the hawthorn in the dale."

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It is the same power, in its ecstatic moods, which lights up the soul with the brilliant fire of the lyric ode, whose burning words have immortalized equally the bard and the hero of the antique world of gods and godlike men; and it is still the same magic power over sympathy which holds us entranced over “ what, though rare, of later age,” we feel to possess the same sway over the heart as that which was written of old for all time.

2. IMAGINATION : its Office in Erpression.—Emotion endows man with the power of expression: his ability to give force and effect to expression, is as his capability of emotion; and the vividness of emotion is dependent on his susceptibility of feeling. But the utmost intensity of feeling might exist in internal consciousness merely; the most vehement excitement of emotion might find no definite or intelligible manifestation; it might be but the idiot's " sound and fury, signifying nothing;" the noblest sentiments of the human soul might find no adequate expression; were it not for the action of another faculty,—that whose office it is to give form to the vague effects of feeling, to embody the evanescent phenomena of emotion, and to give to the abstractions of thought and the generalizations of sentiment a definite shape and the durability of a permanent record.

Consciousness and introversion might enable the individual man to hold communion with his own inner conditions of thought and feeling; and memory might enable him to recall them. But, as it is not given to man, by any act of mere direct introspection, to read the heart or mind of his fellow man, sympathetic and intelligent human intercommunication requires, as a condition, the aid of some power or faculty by which feeling may be distinctly manifested, not merely in its stronger and involuntary excitements, but also in its quietest moods, in its gentlest movements and most delicate effects. The communication of pure thought, apart entirely from excited emotion, is also a necessity of man's mental character and relations. Intellect, not less than feeling, has its claims on utterance, that the individual may become consciously a progressive being, and that mutual intelligence and benefit may be ensured to society. Some means, in a word, are needed to represent what is present to the mind, to suggest the idea or the thought which, by a law of his nature impelling him, man desires to communicate to his fellow being.

Analogy, the Medium of Expression.--Taught by a wisdom above his own, man finds, in the analogies of the outward universe, correspondences to his own inward states of thought and feeling. These analogous forms he refers to as interpreters, in his acts of expression; he transfers them, by a heaven-taught instinct, from their original places in the visible outward sphere to his own inner and invisible world of thought and feeling. These borrowed forms, addressing themselves to a common nature in common circumstances, become the suggestive language of emotion and intelligence between man and man; and, as intellectual skill and expertness are developed, these forms are at length multiplied and complicated so as to assume all the varied shapes of the current coin of speech, even in its most arbitrary modes ;—just as, in the history of human intercourse, traffic, which commenced with the interchange and barter of commodities, gradually becomes a process of purchase and sale, by the adoption of convenient forms representing value and price.

Significance of the term Imagination."— The power by which man recognizes the analogies of form presented in the external world, the power by which he represents these, the power by which he transfers these to his own internal world, and thus images, by analogy, his invisible, impalpable, feelings and conceptions; the power which thus embodies sentiment, and gives shape to language and all other modes of expression, is suggestively named " Imagination,"—the imaging faculty.

The Sphere of Imagination. The office of this faculty, as an expressive power, is one of vast extent and of immense value; and its domain, like that of emotion, is indefinite. Intellect, in its widest excursions and its highest aims, is definite and limited. Its outward sphere is that of sense, as comprehended by the understanding, and measured by the rule of judgment; its inner sphere is that of reason acting on data of definite thought, even in its purest abstractions and widest generalizations. Intellect, in its judicial and critical capacity, may justly assume the authority of deciding on the symmetry and proportion of expression as the form of thought. But it has no creative, no inventive power by which to call up form; it may interpret or explain feeling ; but it can not, without the aid of imagination, embody it. Imagination extends its dominion alike over feeling and intellect: it possesses, exclusively, the power of investing them with form. As a sovereign in the vast world of analogy, it reaches, in one direction, to the farthest limits of the outward universe, wherever form exists, in conditions known or unknown; in another direction, it penetrates the deepest secrets of human feeling, and brings them up from their

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