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the master, Dr. Medcalf, himself a northern man, who privately exerted himself in Ascham’s favor, notwithstanding he had exhibited a leaning toward the new doctrines of protestantism, and had even been exposed to public censure for speaking against the pope. He took the degree of A. M. in 1536, at the age of twenty-one, and began to take pupils, in whose instruction he was very successful. He also read Greek publicly in the university, and privately in his own college.

In 1544, on the resignation of Sir John Cheke, he was chosen University Orator,* an office which he filled with general approbation.

In the following year, (1545,) appeared his “Toxophilus, or, the Schole of Shootinge," a treatise on archery, which he composed with a double view; in the first place, to exhibit a specimen of English prose composition in a purer taste than then prevailed, and in the second, to attract the attention of King Henry VIII., then on the point of setting out on his Boulogne expedition, and to obtain the means of visiting Italy, which he much desired. He succeeded perfectly in the first object, and partially in the second; for the king was so well pleased, that he settled on the author a pension of 101. per annum—at that time a considerable sum, especially to a poor scholar. Ascham about this time acquired other great patrons. He enjoyed a pension from Archbishop Lee, acted for some time as tutor to Henry and Charles Brandon, the two sons of the Duchess of Suffolk, and attracted the friendly regards of the Chancellor Wriothesly, and other eminent men.

In 1548, on occasion of the death of William Grindal, who had been his pupil at Cambridge, Ascham was appointed instructor in the learned languages to the Lady Elizabeth, afterwards Queen, a situation which he filled for some time with great credit to himself and satisfaction to his pupil.

Of Ascham's own attachments, as well as methods of study and teaching, we have the best record in his letters and the Schoolmaster. He held fast the truth, that it is only by its own free agency that the intellect can either be enriched or invigorated ;—that true knowledge is an act, a continuous immanent act, and at the same time an operation of the reflective faculty on its own objects. How he applied


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or should depart thence for any need. This good man's goodness shall never be out of my remembrance all the days of my life. For vext to God's Providence, surely that day was, by that good father's means, dies natalis unto me for the whole foundation of the poor learning I bave, and of all furthermore that hitherto elsewhere I have obtained." The human heart is capable of no more generous feeling than the genuine gratitude of a scholar to his instructor. It is twice blessed; honorable alike to the youth and to the elder; and nev. er can exist when it is not just.

* Public Orator is Spokesman on public occasions, and corresponding Secretary of the University. It is an office of great honor and high precedency.

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this idea to the purposes of education, his "Schoolmaster," written in the maturity of his powers, and out of the fullness of his experience, sufficiently shows. But the idea, though undeveloped, wrought in him from his earliest youth; his favorite maxim was Docendo disces. The affectionate wish and strenuous effort to impart knowledge is the best possible condition for receiving it. The necessity of being intelligible to others brings with it an obligation to understand ourselves ; to find words apt to our ideas, and ideas commensurate to our words ; to seek out just analogies and happy illustrations. But, above all, by teaching, or more properly by reciprocal intercommunication of instruction, we gain a practical acquaintance with the universal laws of thought, and with the process of perception, abstracted from the actions of the individual constitution : for it is only by a sympathetic intercourse with other minds that we gain any true knowledge of our own. Of course we speak of free and friendly teaching, not of despotic dictation, than which there is no habit more likely to perpetuate presumptuous ignorance.

The study of the Greek language was at that time new in western Europe, and in England a mere novelty. To Ascham it was as trouble of a new delight;" every lesson which he gained he was eager to impart; he taught Greek, he wrote Greek, he talked Greek, no wonder if he dreamed in Greek. There might be a little vanity in this : but whatever vanity he possessed, (and he certainly loved to talk of himself,) was so tempered by modesty, and blended with such candor, such glad acknowledgment of other's merits, that the sternest judgments could hardly call it a foible. By this industrious communication and daily practice, he acquired, at a very early period, such a command of the Greek vocabulary, and so vernacular a turn of phrase, that his senior, Robert Pember, to whom he had addressed an epistle in that tongue, assures him that his letter might have been written at Athens. But the critical nicety of modern scholarship was then unknown, and it was very unlikely that Pember himself felt or understood that perfect atticism upon which he compliments his young friend. Pember's epistle of course is in Latin, interspersed with Greek, and curious enough to be worthy of translation. It is to this effect :—“Dearly beloved Roger, I render thee thanks for thy Greek epistle, which might seem to have been indited at ancient Athens, so exactly hast thou attained the propriety of Greek phrase : of exquisite penmanship it is, as are all thine. Use diligence, that thou may'st be perfect, not according to the stoical, but to lyrical perfection, that thou mays't touch the harp aright. Continue to read Greek with the boys, for thou wilt profit more by one little fable of



Æsop, read and explained by thyself, than if thou shouldst hear the whole Iliad expounded in Latin by the learnedest man now living. Peruse Pliny, in which author is the greatest knowledge of things, along with the most florid opulence of Latin speech."*

In this letter we may notice, first, the testimonial to the beauty of Ascham's penmanship,t which proved a principal means of his advancement: secondly, a proof that he was actually engaged in the tuition of boys : thirdly, that in his plans, both for his own improvement, and for that of his pupils, he diverged from the common routine of lectures : fourthly, that his friend, well discerning the bent and purpose of his genius, urged him to proceed with those humane and elegant studies, on which some austerer judgments looked with an evil eye. From one passage of this epistle, a biographer has observed that “Mr. Robert Pember advised him to learn instrumental music, which would prove a very agreeable entertainment to him after his severer studies, and was easy to be attained by him, as he was already a great master of vocal music." It is certainly very possible, that Pember may have given him such advice, but it is nevertheless certain, that he does not give it in the letter in question. There is no allusion at recreation at all. The whole drift of the writer is an exhortation to perseverance in a course of study already commenced. I So far was Ascham from devoting himself to music with that intensity which Pember has been supposed to recommend, that he appears to have had no manner of taste, but rather a platonic antipathy for it, even as an amusement. Nor would he be well pleased with the present course of education in his University, if we judge by the sentiments which he expresses in his Schoolmaster, and Toxophilus.

* I wish young scholars paid attention to this recommendation. Pliny is never read at school, and very seldom at college ; yet I have the high authority of Southey for saying, that he is the most instructive of all the Roman authors. The extent of his knowledge is almost marvelous; his veracity, where he speaks from personal observation, is daily approved by modern experiment and discovery; and even his credulity adds to his value, by disclosing more fully the actual state of physical science in his age and country. It is surely quite as interesting to know what properties the passions or the imaginations of men have ascribed

to a plant or animal, as to count its stamina and petals, or ascertain the number of its verte• bræ. Both are very useful. But the highest recommendation of Pliny is his moral wisdom,

his almost Christian piety, his intelligent humanity. Of all the Romans be was the least of a Roman, and approximated nearest to the pure idea of man.

+ The importance of good penmanship is still appreciated by the English government. In 1554, Viscount Palmerston, then Home Secretary, caused a letter to be addressed to the Sec. retary of the Privy Council on Education, in which he submits " for their Lordships consideration that one great fault in the system of instruction io ihe schools of the country lies in the want of proper teaching in the art of writing. The great bulk of the middle and lower orders write hands too small and indistinct, and do not form their letters; or they sometimes form them by alternate broad and fine strokes, which makes the words difficult to read. The hand writing which was generally practised in the early part and middle of the last century was far better than that now in common use; and Lord Palmerston would suggest that it would be very desirable that the attention of schoolmasters should be directed to this subject, and that their pupils should be taught rather to imitate broad printing than five copper-plate engraving."

I The words of the original are—“Da operam, ut sis perfectus, non Stoicus, allà A voikos, ut belle pulses lyram." No doubt in the same sense that Socrates was commanded by the Oracle to make music; or, to appeal to a far higher authority, as David “shewed a dark speech on the harp," i. e. opened and exalted the understanding by the aid of the imagination. S. T. Coleridge remarks on this note of his son Hartley,-neither has Hartley caught the true meaning of the words allà Avoikos, as opposed 10 Stoicus. The Stoicus-the sovereignty of the highest by the sacrifice of the inferior; Lyricus, the whole as a beautiful one, by harmonious subordination.

"Some wits, moderate enough by nature, be many times marred . by over much study and use of some sciences, namely, music, arithmetic, and geometry. These sciences, as they sharpen men's wits over much, so they charge men's manners over sore, if they be not moderately mingled, and wisely applied to some good use of life. Mark all mathematical heads, which be wholly and only bent to those sciences, how solitary they be themselves, how unapt to serve in the world. This is not only known by common experience, but uttered long before by wise men's judgment and sentence. Galen saith, much music marreth men's manners, and Plato hath a notable place of the same thing, and excellently translated by Tully himself. Of this matter I wrote once more at large, twenty years ago, in


book of shooting." The passage of the Toxophilus referred to, is as follows :-“Whatsoever ye judge, this I am sure, that lutes, harps, barbitons, sambukes, and other instruments, every one which standeth by quick and fine fingering, be condemned of Aristotle, as not to be brought in and used among them, which study for learning and virtue. Much music marreth men's manners, saith Galen. Although some men will say that it doth not so, but rather recreateth and maketh quick a man's mind, yet metlinks, by reason it doth, as honey doth to a man's stomach, which at the first receiveth it well; but afterwards it maketh it unfit to abide any strong nourishing meat, or else any wholesome sharp and quick drink; and, even so in a manner, these instruments make a man's wit so soft and smooth, so tender and queasy, that they be less able to brook strong and rough study. Wits be not sharpened, but rather made blunt, with such soft sweetness, even as good edges be blunted, which men whet upon soft chalk-stones.”

These opinions require considerable limitation. Music is so high a delight to such as are really capable of enjoying it, that there is some danger of its encroaching too much upon the student's time, and it is frequently a passport to very undesirable company; but if these evils be avoided, its effects on the mind are extremely salutary and refreshing. Nothing calms the spirit more sweetly than sad music; nothing quickens cogitation like a lively air. But the truth was, that honest Roger had no ear, and like a true Englishman of an age when Kings




were wrestlers, and queens not only presided at tournaments, but “rained influence” upon bear baitings, delighted rather in muscular exertion than in fine fingering. That the practice of music no way impairs the faculty of severe thought, is sufficiently evinced by the fact that Milton was a skillful musician,* and that most of the German philosophers of the present day, who in mental industry excel the whole world, play on some instrument. Mathematical pursuits are so far from disqualifying men for business, that of all others they are most necessary to such as are intended for public life. Be it as it may, with music and mathematics, it is certain that Ascham did teach Greek and Latin with eminent success.

It must be an affair of delicate management to teach Greek to a princess; but Ascham had a love and a genius for teaching, and Elizabeth possessed in an extraordinary degree the facility of her sex in learning languages. She had then little or no expectation of reigning. Her situation was one of peculiar difficulty: she needed a spirit at once firm and yielding; and displayed in earliest youth a circumspection and self-control in which her latter years were deficient. Ascham found her a most agreeable pupil; and the diligence, docility, modest affection, and self-respective deference of the royal maiden, endeared an office which the shy scholar had not undertaken without fears and misgivings. His epistles to his friends are full of the princess' commendations and his own satisfaction; and in his later works he refers to this part of his life with honest pride. In this happy strain he writes to John Sturmius, of Strasburg: you

wish to know how I am thriving at Court, you may assure yourself that I had never more blessed leisure in my college than now in the palace. The Lady Elizabeth and I are studying together, in the original Greek, the crown orations of Demosthenes and Æschines. She reads her lessons to me, and at one glance so completely comprehends, not only the idiom of the language and the sense of the orator, but the exact bearings of the cause, and the public acts, manners,

and usages

of the Athenian people, that you would marvel to behold her.” In like temper he told Aylmer, afterward Bishop of London, that he learned more of the Lady Elizabeth than she did of him. “I teach her words,” said be," and she teaches me things. I teach her the tongues to speak, and her modest and maidenly looks teach me works to do; for I think she is the best disposed of any in Europe.” In several of his Latin epistles, and also in bis Schoolmaster," he explains and recommends his mode of instructing the princess with evident exultation at * Much music is Galen's phrase, and see the last lines of Milton's sonnet

He who of these delights can judge, and spare
To interpose them oft, is not unwise.

—“ If


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