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vacant places in your board of such of your sons, or the sons of those on the list I have given you, as may then be accessible to the choice of your successors, and may be worthy, from their personal qualifications and good repute in Baltimore, to assume the charge of the Institute. And, finally, when these sources shall fail, I desire that the succession in the board of trustees shall be ever maintained by the careful selection, from time to time, of such eminent and capable citizens of Baltimore as may be willing to administer to the service of this community by the devotion of a portion of their time to a work which I earnestly hope may be found to be, both in the influence of its example, and in the direct administration of its purpose, a long, fruitful, and prosperous benefiction to the good people of Baltimore.

I must not omit to impress upon you a suggestion for the government of the Institute, which I deem to be of the highest moment, and which I desire shall be ever present to the view of the board of trustees. My earnest wish to promote, at all times, a spirit of harmony and good-will in society, my aversion to intolerance, bigotry, and party rancor, and my enduring respect and love for the happy institutions of our prosperous Republic, impel me to express the wish that the Institute I have proposed to you shall always be strictly guarded against the possibility of being made a theatre for the dissemination or discussion of sectarian theology or party politics; that it shall never minister, in any manner whatever, to political dissension, to intidelity, to visionary theories of a pretended philosophy, which may be aimed at the subversion of the approved morals of society; that it shall never lend its aid or influence to the propagation of opinions tending to create or encourage sectional jealousies in our happy country, or which may lead to the alienation of the people of one State or section of the Union from those of another; but that it shall be so conducted, throughout its whole career, as to teach political and religious charity, toleration, and beneficence, and prove itself to be, in all contingencies and conditions, the true friend of our inestimable Union, of the salutary institutions of free Government, and of liberty regulated by law. I enjoin these precepts upon the board of trustees and their successors forever, for their invariable observance and enforcement in the administration of the duties I have confided to them.

And now, in conclusion, I have only to express my wish that, in the construction of the building you are to erect, you will allow space for future additions in case they may be found necessary; and that, in its plan, style of architecture, and adaptation to its various uses, it may be worthy of the purposes to which it is dedicated, and may serve to embellish a city whose prosperity, I trust, will ever be distinguished by an equal growth in knowledge and virtue. I am, with great respect, your friend,

GEORGE PEABODY.
Wm. E. Mayhew,

Sam. W. Smith,
John P. Kennedy,

Chauncey Brooks,
Chas. J. M. Eaton,

Wm. F. Murdoch,
Thomas Swann,

Enoch Pratt,
George Brown,

J. Mason Campbell,
John B. Morris.

Geo. W. Brown,
S. Owings Hoffman,

Galloway Cheston,
G. W. Burnap:

Geo. P. Tiffany,
Wm. H. D. C. Wright,

Wm. Prescott Smith,
Josias Pennington,

Chas. Bradenbaugh,
Wm. Mckim,

Edw. M. Greenway, Jr.,
David S. Wilson,

Wm. C. Shaw.
John M. Gordon,

While engaged in devising this munificent gift for Baltimore, Mr. Peabory did not forget his native town—but as a birth-day present, sent a check for the sum of ten thousand dollars to establish a Branch Institute in that part of the town of old Danvers which now constitutes a town by itself.

BELGIUM.

INTERNATIONAL PHILANTHROPIC CONGRESS AT BRUSSEIS. We abridge the following notice of the International Philanthropic Congress from The Laborer's Friend," of Nov. 29, 1856 :

The sittings of the Congress commenced on Monday, the 15th, and closed on Saturday, the 20th of Sept., 1856, in the Public Hall of the Académie Royale des Sciences et des Beaux-Arts, and during several of the sittings many ladies occupied the side seats, particularly on the occasion when His Majesty and the Duke of Brabant honored the Congress with their presence.

The number of members amounted to upwards of 200, more than 130 of whom were non-residents, including representatives from most parts of Europe. On the first day after the reading of the list of adherents by M. Ducpetiaux, the Secretary, an eloquent opening address was delivered by the President, M. Charles Rogier, formerly Minister of the Interior ; and various members stated the progress of philanthropic efforts in the different countries which they represented.

The Congress was then divided into three Sections, and the morning sittings were devoted to the separate consideration of the subjects in Committees and Sub-committees, or Commissions ; the afternoon being appropriated to the united reception and discussion of the various Reports of the several Sections, as presented to the general body. The first Section treated of Alimentary Substances in their relation to

Agriculture. The second Section treated of Alimentary Substances in their relation to

Political and Charitable Economy.

Under this head was classed the question of the abuse of strong drinks, regarded in the double light of the loss of nutritive substances employed in their manufacture, and their influence on the health and morality of the Working Classes.

The encouragement and the creation of a spirit of forethought and saving amongst workmen, and the institutions intended to favor and to create such a spirit.

The means of preventing the inordinate increase of population,

and especially the regular and permanent organization of emigration. The third Section treated of Alimentary Substances viewed in their re

lationship to Scientific and Industrial Operations, Processes, and Inventions, adapted to facilitate and to bring to perfection Manual Labor ; to render healthy certain industrial pursuits ; and to prevent accidents : the improvement of the Dwellings, of the Furniture and

Clothes, of the Working Classes. The Programme prepared by the Committee of Organization contained, under each of the preceding Sections or Divisions, a very detailed and carefully-prepared analysis, subdivided into about fifty heads, indicating the leading features of the subjects to be considered.

Over the several Sections Presidents were appointed.

In the first Section-COUNT ARRIVABENE (Belgium) and the VISCOUNT DE

CAUMONT (France)..
In the second Section- MONSIEUR LIEDTS, Minister of State.

Vice-Presidents - PROFESSOR SCHUBERT (Prussia), M. WOLOWSKI

(France). In the third Section—The Right HONORABLE WILLIAM COWPER, M. P.,

assisted by M. VISSCHERS (Belgium). We give an abridgment of the addresses which appear most likely to interest our readers, and to convey a general idea of the proceedings at the Congress.

The President, M. CHARLES ROGIER, in his opening address, said

Gentlemen, the Statistical Congress of 1853, taking up an idea presented to the “ Congrès Pénitentiaire" of 1847, unanimously enunciated the idea of seeing, at some early period, united in a general Congress, the men who, in different countries, occupy themselves with questions relating to the physical, the moral, and the intellectual improvement of the Working Classes and of the Poor. This, then, is the order of the day transmitted to their successors by the members of the Statistical Society.

It was left to us to consider the order in which it would be most suitable to take up these questions, and we have not hesitated in giving the priority to those which relate to the material life of the people-Food, Dwellings, Clothing, Manual Labor.

The most difficult and the most lofty part of the task will present itself at the time when the investigations shall have especial and deep reference to intellectual, moral, and social improvements.

The Congress certainly does not pretend to such a paradox as that of seeing living facts, ameliorations full-blown, arise at once from its discussions. Our task is limited to the exchange of ideas, to elaborating in common, and to propagating the theories to which science and experience assign a practical value, and which are, to say the truth, ideas, germs, thrown into the world under the eye of God. All are not destined to ripen. Many will be dispersed by the winds, fall and perish upon a rebellious soil. In the most positive sciences, how much lost labor, how many researches vanish away ; how numerous the risks of the most valuable discoveries, of the most obvious truths making their way and being usefully applied ! Sow, Gentlemen, propagate healthy ideas, and, without impatience, without discouragement, wait the harvest. The common efforts of so many choice spirits, the contact of so many devoted hearts, will give birth, be ye sure, at the proper time, to something good and useful.

We hasten, Gentlemen, to give place to the honorable Reporters, the Delegates from different countries here present. We hasten to assist at this Exposition, this review of nations, in which Belgium will ask to occupy its place. What can be more instructive, more fruitful, than these inquiries, this exchange of information, these mutual lessons of nation to nation, and these eloquent facts, gathered from the lips even of men the most distinguished, the most competent, the most truthful? Is not this the commencement of a profound reform, and of a new progress in the relations of government and people ?

Yes, Gentlemen, that will one day be a touching and a sublime spectacle, when these great assizes of benevolence are held, when each nation shall appear, by its most illustrious representatives, who shall come at recurrent periods to render an account and to testify of what has been done, and even of what has been omitted to be done, for their own improvement, and for tae happiness of the largest numbers. Ah! these struggles will be valuable, fruitful; these rivalries of nations will be useful ; and how beautiful will be the crowns of the conquerors! You, Gentlemen, have passed over different countries of Europe to render this first testimony: you are all united on the free and peaceable soil of Belgium, to prepare the harvest of the future pacific workmen. Devoted hearts, veterans, and recruits in the holy cause, be welcome amongst us. To the work, and now blessed be your work! (Triple rounds of applause.)

This address was followed by remarks from delegates from France, Sardinia, England, Norway, and Switzerland.

Permanent institution of the Congress.--It was decided to convert the Congress into a permanent international institution for the discussion of questions of philanthropy, with corresponding members in every country.

International Correspondence. The Congress decided on proclaiming the necessity for the creation of a system of international correspondence, by the aid of which mutual communications may be made of all the facts, publications, reports, and other documents relating to philanthropic efforts, to improvements, or to reforms, which have reference to the working and to the indigent classes in each country. A variety of means for effecting this very important object were pointed out, and the representatives of each country were invited, before leaving Brussels, to communicate to M. Ducpetiaux, the Secretary, the names and addresses of persons with whom the Central Committee in Brussels might correspond on the subject.

Reports were made of the discussion in the several sections, which are to be printed. We give a summary of the conclusions on one or two points.

Manufacture of Bread.—The industry which has for its object the manufacture of bread requires a reform almost complete. It is, under ordinary circumstances, still in its infancy, regulated by old rules, by old customs, adopting bad habits with superannuated engines and implements. It is therefore of importance earnestly to engage all who can contribute to this work, to neglect nothing which may bring about its accomplishment ; for although it ought to be very easy to obtain excellent bread, every one is obliged to acknowledge it is rare to find that which is good.

The Report proceeds to point out various reasons which have brought about an evil so prejudicial to the laboring classes, and suggests several practical remedies, some of which are of general, and others of more limited application.

Preparation of Food.-Those who have entered the dwellings of the working classes require little to convince them, that everywhere, in the preparation of articles of food, there is much to be desired. It may be attirmed, that, generally, his housekeeper does not know how food ought to be prepared so as to preserve in it the nutritive qualities which it possesses, and to give it the most suitable form, so as not to cause satiety and the distaste which is produced in man by the too-frequently-repeated use of the same alimentary substances.

The Commission of Organization desires to accomplish a reform in this state of things, and the Third Section approving fully of the object, points out the teaching of cookery in girls' schools as the most effectual means of accomplishing it. This kind of instruction has been already adopted. The General Council in the Brussels Hospitals employs it in its school of young orphans : it distributes even prizes to those of its pupils who distinguish themselves most in this kind of knowledge.

Preservation of Food. - The preservation of articles of food, and particularly of vegetables, after the process which combines the steam-kitchen, desiccation, and compression, has de, particularly of late years, such progress, that it ought to be encouraged. The improved process, to which recourse is had for this object in Europe, ought to be propagated and studied as much as possible. Improved means for the preservation of meat would enable us to profit by the immense stores of beasts in America and in other countries. In this respect it is to be regretted that the salt meats imported from the United States do not always unite those conditions which are necessary to fit them for the habitual consumption of Europe.

Dwellings of the Working Classes.-M. EMILE MULLER (France) said—Gentlemen, amongst the questions pointed out in the Programme of the Philanthropic Congress, and chosen with so much tact and intelligence, that which relates to the dwellings of the working classes has an importance and an interest well understood at the present time by the men of benevolence and of heart, who have responded to the call of the Committee.

When the Congrès d'Hygiène was held in Brussels in 1852, the works for the Improvement of the Dwellings of the Laboring Classes were not at that time of great importance, and existed only in England, in France, and in some other countries : the mind was only beginning then to be occupied with this subject. The idea was at that time only in the period of incubation; some fore-thoughtful minds alone were struck with its importance ; its practical utility had not then made an impression on the minds of the many. It was at the meeting of the Congrès d' Hygiène in 1852 that the great question of the Improvement of the Dwellings of the Working Classes must have happily passed through this first epoch, and have entered into its period of advent.

It is, then, with pleasure, with gratitude to our predecessors of 1852, that we have seen the representatives of so many different nations present themselves before this assize of humanity, with a large and imposing array of facts accomplished, or about to be accomplished.

The first Model Houses for the Working Classes were constructed in England in 1814 ; in 1852 the report of your Committee only presented to you the buildings constructed in Great Britain ; and we may be permitted to foresee, almost to affirm, that your next Session will have to record works completed in every country.

It is with regret, we must say, that up to the present time, excepting in Great Britain--at least so we believe-all the efforts have been made exclusively in favor of the dwellings in towns; whilst in the country there is found a degree of wretchedness quite as much deserving our interest.

We now proceed to the Programme of Conditions.

1. Choice of Situation. 2. Arrangement of the Houses. 3. Width of Streets. 4. Yards and Gardens. 5. Choice of Materials. 6. Floors. 7. Ventilation.

Under each of the above heads the Report contains many practical remarks, which may be regarded as an addenda or supplement to the Schedule of General Rules for the Construction of Workmen's Duellings, adopted, after mature deliberation, by the Congrès d liygiènet in 1852, and published in the Report of the said Congress, as

* An Association having this object in view was formed in Edinburgh upwards of thirty years since, and subsequently another in the northwest part of London: both failer in the accomplishment of their object, owing to the difficulty of obtaining suitable building sites, and the funds contributed were returned to the Subscribers. These facts di prove a statement recently made, which would assign a much later date to the first idea of builuing dwellings for the working classes.

+ At this Congress, Mr. Roberts represented the Society for Improving the Condition of the Laboring Classes, as their Honorary Architect, and assisted in the settlement of the Gen

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