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Grammar School,—the preparatory classical seminary connected with Yale College.

The peculiar form of illness, to which Mr. Russell is liable in cold latitudes, having returned, a less sedentary mode of teaching became desirable for him; and with a view to the benefit of such a change, he commenced the instruction of classes in elocution, in connection with the Theological Seminary at Andover, the University at Cambridge, the Public Latin School, and Chauncy Hall School, in the city of Boston. Soon after this change of occupation, he was invited to take the editorial charge of the American Journal of Education, published in Boston, first by Mr. Thomas B. Wait, in 1826, next by Mr. S. G. Goodrich, and subsequently by Messrs. Carter & Hendee. Mr. Russell continued to conduct this periodical for nearly three years from the date of its publication.

The early direction given to Mr. Russell's studies and pursuits by the influence of Professor Jardine, led him to take a deep interest in the general subject of modes of education, in their adaptation to the development of mind and character. This circumstance subsequently proved a useful preparation for the business of conducting an educational journal at a time when, as yet, no publication of that description existed in our own country or in England; although the light shed on the whole subject of education by the labors of Pestalozzi, had excited, throughout Europe and America, a fresh interest on all the great questions involved in the various departments of physical, intellectual, and moral culture.

The only Journals then devoted to the subject of education, were those of Germany, France, and, perhaps, one or two other countries on the continent of Europe. The necessity of important changes in the plan and character of education, was beginning to be deeply felt in England. But this feeling had hitherto been expressed only in detached suggestions from the minds of individuals, in occasional pamphlets, or similar forms of publication. In the United States, the condition of matters was much the same as in England; although, in some instances, the degree of attention excited on the subject, was both stronger and more definite.

Warren Colburn's invaluable contribution to the improvement of education, in the publication of his Intellectual Arithmetic, had virtually introduced the spirit of Pestalozzi's methods of instruction into the schools of New England ; and much had been effected by the diffusion of liberal views on the whole subject of education, by Mr. James G. Carter, through his numerous and able editorial articles in the United States Literary Gazette.

Much also had been done toward the same results by the successful exertions of Professor Walter R. Johnson, in connection with the establishment of the Franklin Institute, in Philadelphia, and with the introduction of the school system of Pennsylvania. Valuable aid had been rendered, likewise, to the interests of education, by the exertions of the Rev. Mr. Gallaudet, of Hartford, for the introduction of modes of instruction adapted to seminaries for the deaf and dumb, but incidentally shedding a truer light on all forms of mental development. The arduous labors of Mr. Russell, in the unassisted editorial care of the Journal of Education, although of no pecuniary benefit to him personally, were amply rewarded by the many invaluable results to which they led. Prominent among these were the instruction of physical education, in various forms, into American seminaries; more liberal views on the subject of female education ; more genial methods of conducting the business of early culture in primary schools; the establishment of lyceums and other popular institutions connected with the diffusion of useful knowledge ; the formation of Teachers' Associations, and the establishment of seminaries for teachers.

The Journal met with warm encouragement throughout the Union, and was extensively used as a vehicle of communication, both for developing the views of the friends of education in several of the States which were then occupied with the establishment of systems of public instruction, and for the diffusion of improved methods of teaching, which were then claiming general attention in New England and other parts of our country, where the subject of education had attained to a more mature stage of advancement. Eminent educators and philanthropists abroad, both in England and on the continent, gave their cordial sympathy and commendation to the design and character of the American Journal, and contributed effectual aid to its purposes, by liberal exchanges, and copious supplies of material, in the shape of important public documents.

The editorial care of the Journal, though an exceedingly laborious form of occupation, was one which was peculiarly agreeable to Mr. Russell, from his personal tastes and habits; and he would gladly have continued it, could he have done so with safety. But the employment of conducting an educational periodical being necessarily, for the most part, a gratuitous service, it could only be performed by laboring at night after the days' occupation in teaching. Three years of this double toil occasioned a reduction of strength which called for a temporary cessation of exertion ; and at the request of an eminent friend of education, residing in Germantown, Pennsylvania, Mr. Russell taught, for several years, a limited class of young ladies, in that

village, and, subsequently, a school of a similar description, together with private classes, in the city of Philadelphia.

On his return to Boston, he resumed his former line of teaching there and at Andover; attending, at intervals, as lecturer and instructor, at the spring and autumn sessions of Teachers' Institutes in the State of Rhode Island, under the direction of the Hon. Henry Barnard, then State Commissioner of Schools. Mr. Russell was em: ployed, also, for some years, in conducting the exercises of similar associations in the State of New Hampshire ; occupying himself, during the winter season, for the benefit of a milder climate, in teaching classes

a at Princeton College, and in the cities of New York and Brooklyn. In fulfilling these numerous engagements, he was frequently assisted by his son,-now Rev. Francis T. Russell, of New Britian, Connecticut, who, from his interest in the cause of education, still affords such aid to the Teachers' Institutes of that State.

In 1849, at the invitation of friends of education in New Hampshire, Mr. Russell established there a seminary for teachers, which he continued to conduct or direct, for several years. But his health incapacitating him for the active duties of teaching, during the severe winters of that region, he was induced, in the spring of 1853, to move his Seminary to Lancaster, Massachusetts, where he now resides.

Mr. Russell commenced his seminary in Lancaster, with liberal aid from the local friends of education there, and with the assistance of a numerous and superior corps of instructors; among whom were Professor Hermann Krüsi of Switzerland, previously instructor in mathematics and modern languages, in the Home and Colonial Normal Seminary of London, and now Instructor in the Massachusetts Teachers' Institutes, Professor William J. Whittaker of London, subsequently Principal of the Boston School of Design, and now similarly occupied in the city of Philadelphia,—Mr. Dana P. Colburn, now Principal of the Rhode Island Normal School, Providence, and Sanborn Tenney, A. M., of Amherst College, now Instructor in the Massachusetts Teachers’ Institutes.

But the highly liberal course now adopted by the State of Massachusetts, in establishing State scholarships in her colleges, for the benefit of young men intending to devote themselves to the business of teaching in the public high schools of the State, and in the generous encouragement given to students of both sexes in the State Normal Schools to extend their course of professional study, has, to a great extent, superseded the necessity of any private establishment for the higher professional training of teachers. Mr. Russell, therefore, devotes, at present, but a limited portion of the year to instruction in Lancaster. During the spring and autumn months, he continues to



attend the circuit of the Teachers’ Institutes of the State, held under the direction of the Secretary of the Board of Education. Mr. Russell's department in the institutes is that of lecturer and instructor in reading and elocution. Part of the year he devotes, as formerly, to the instruction of classes in elocution, at several of our New England colleges and professional seminaries.

The principal services which Mr. Russell has rendered by bis personal exertions in the field of education, have been those of editorial labor, the direction of seminaries for teachers, and the instruction of classes at Teachers' Institutes. As a practical teacher, however, he has been extensively engaged, as a lecturer and teacher in elocution, in seminaries of various grades. A number of his earlier years were spent in the usual forms of academic supervision and instruction. His modes of teaching, when so situated, he has developed in his course of grammatical exercises adapted to his edition of Adams' Latin Grammar,-in his Grammar of Composition, and in his Exercises on Words. His methods in elocution, adapted to the successive stages of instruction, are embodied in his series of reading manuals and other text-books, * which have been extensively used in our schools and colleges and professional seminaries, and have effectually contributed to the advancement of a branch of education previously much neglected.

A subject to which Mr. Russell has devoted much attention and which he has frequently brought forward at the meetings of teachers, is one of common interest to all who devote themselves to teaching as a business for life,-the importance of placing the occupation on the footing of a recognized profession. After his address on this subject, before the New Hampshire State Association of Teachers, a committee was appointed to report upon it; and a resolution was subsequently passed by that body, that admission to membership in the Association should thenceforth take place by professional examination and certifi

We hope that Mr. Russell, before withdrawing from the field of active labor in education, will enjoy the satisfaction of seeing his wishes regarding the distinct recognition of teaching as a profession, amply fulfilled throughout our country, and the profession crowded with practitioners, trained and qualified to the highest pitch of his expectations.


A list of these and his other publications we have annexed to this sketch of his professional life. It is but justice, however, to Mr. R. to state, with reference to their large apparent number, that his works were not published for pecuniary purposes, but were mostly prepared at the solicitation of his numerous classes of teachers, for their immediate use. A few of them unexpectedly obtained a wide circulation ; but most of them have been serviceable rather as pioneers than otherwise.


Russell. Suggestions on Education : relating particularly to the Method of Instruction commonly adopted in Geography, History, Grammar, Logic, and the Classics. New Haven : A. H. Maltby & Co. 1823.

A Grammar of Composition : including a practical review of the principles of Rhetoric, a series of exercises in Rhetorical Analysis, and six introductory courses of Composition. New Haven : A. H. Maltby & Co. 1823.

Adam's Latin Grammar, abridged and arranged in a course of Practical Lessons, adapted to the capacity of Young Learners. To which are added Rules of Pronunciation in reading Latin. New Haven : A. H. Maltby & Co. 1824.

Am. Journal of Education. Vols. I. II. III. Boston : 1826,-7,-8.

A Manual of Mutual Instruction : consisting of Mr. Fowle's Directions for introducing in common schools the improved system adopted in the Monitorial School, Boston. With an Appendix, containing some considerations in favor of the Monitorial Method, and a sketch of its progress, embracing a view of its adaptation to instruction in academies, preparatory seminaries, and colleges. Boston: Wait, Green & Co. 1826. The Library of Education. Vol. I. "Some Thoughts concerning

“ Education,” by John Locke; and a “ Treatise of Education," by John Milton; with an Appendix, containing Locke's Memoranda on Study. Boston: Gray & Bowen. 1830.

Journal of Instruction. (Semi-monthly periodical.] Phila. : 1831.

Lessons in Enunciation : comprising a course of Elementary Exercises, and a statement of Common Errors in Articulation, with the rules of correct usage in Pronouncing. To which is added an Appendix, containing Rules and Exercises on the mode of Enunciation required for Public Reading and Speaking. Boston: Melvin Lord. 1830.

Rudiments of Gesture, comprising illustrations of common Faults in Attitude and Action. To which is added an Appendix, designed for practical exercises in Declamation, consisting of a Debate on the Character of Julius Cæsar, by James Sheridan Knowles. Boston: G. W. Palmer & Co. 1838.

Ecercises in Elocution, exemplifying the rules and principles of the art of Reading. Boston: Jenks & Palmer. 1841.

The American Elocutionist : comprising " Lessons in Enunciation," “ Exercises in Elocution,” and “Rudiments of Gesture.” With a selection of New Pieces for practice in Reading and Declamation ; and engraved Illustrations in Attitude and Action. Designed for Colleges, Professional Institutions, Academies, and Common Schools. Boston: Jenks, Palmer & Co. 1844.

Primer, or First Steps in Spelling and Reading. Designed as introductory to the Spelling Book, and forming Part I. of a series of Books for Elementary Schools. Boston: Tappan & Dennet. 1844.

Spelling-Book : or, Second Course of Lessons in Spelling and


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