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past indic,

For the verification of this statement, we must go back again to the older Teutonic dialects.

CORRESPONDING GOTHIC VERB8.
Pres. indic.

past partic.
1. Binda, band, pl. bundun, bundans.
6. Drigka, dragk, pl. drugkun, drugkans.
8. Fintha, fanth, pl. funthan, funthans.
10. Ginna, gann, pl. gunnun, gunnans.
12. Hilpa, halp, pl. hulpun, hulpans.
15. Rinna, rann, pl, runnun,

runnans.
17. Siggva, saggv, pl. suggvun, suggvans.
18. Sigega, saggq, pl. suggqun,

gqans. 21. Spiana, spann, pl. spunnun, spunnans. 23. Stigqa, stagq, pl. stugqun, stugqans. 27. Svimma, svamm, pl. svummun, svummans.

30. Vinda, vand, pl. vundun, vundans. The plural of the past tense is given, as distinguishing this conjugation from the first.

This type or model of the second conjugation in Gothic is perfectly regular.

CORRESPONDING ANGLO-SAXON VERBE. 1. Binde, band, pl. bundon,

bunden. 2. Climbe, clamb, pl. clumbon, clumben.

3. Clinge, b 4. Delfe, dealf, pl. dulfon,

dolfen. 6. Drince, dranc, pl. druncon, druncen. b 7. Feohte, feaht, pl. fuhton,

fohten. 8. Finde, fand, pl. fundon,

funden. 10. Beginne, began, pl. begunnon, begunnen.

11. Grinde, grand, pl. grundon, grunden.
6 12. Helpe, healp, pl. hulpon, holpen.
b 13. Melte,
mealt, pl. multon,

molten.
14. Hringe,
15. Yrne, arn, pl. urnon,
16. Scrince, scranc, pl. scruncon,
17. Singe,
sang, pl. sungon,

sungen.
18. Since, sanc, pl. suncon,
19. Slinge,
20. Slince,
21. Spinne, span, pl. spunnon, spunnen.
22. Springe, sprang, pl. sprungon, sprungen.
23. Stinge, stang, pl. stungon, stungen.
24. Stince, stanc, pl. stuncon,

urnen.

scruncen.

stuncen.

suncen.

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6 26. Swelle, sweoll, pl. swullon, swollen.

27. Swimme, swamm, pl. swummon,
28. Swinge, swang, pl. swungon, swungen.
29. Winne, wan, pl. wunnon,

wunnen.
30. Winde, wand, pl. wundon,

wunden. 31. Wringe, wrang, pl. wrungon, wrungen. Most of these verbs are entirely regular; those marked b have an analogy peculiar to themselves.

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c

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flang, obs.

holp, obs.

holpen, obs.

run.

1. Bind,
bound,

bounden, obs.
2. Climb,
clomb, obs.

clomb, obs.
3. Cling,
clung,

clung. 6 4. Delve,

dolve, obs.

dolven, obs.
5. Dig,
dug,

dug:
6. Drink,
drank,

drunken, obs. 6 7. Fight,

fought,

foughten, obs.
8. Find,
found,

found.
9. Fling,

flung.
10. Begin,
began,

begun. c 11. Grind,

ground,

ground. 6 12. Help, b 13. Melt,

molt, obs.

molten, obs.
14. Ring,
rang,

rung.
15. Run,

ran,
16. Shrink,
shrank,

shrunken.
17. Sing,
sang,

sung.
18. Sink,
sank,

sunken, obs.
19. Sling,

slung.
20. Slink,
slank, obs.

slunk. 21. Spin,

spun. 22. Spring, sprang,

sprung. 23. Sting, stang, obs.

stung,
24. Stink,
stank,

stunk.
25. String,
strung,

strung 6 26. Swell,

swoll, obs.

swollen, 27. Swim, swam,

swum. 28. Swing,

swung. 29. Win, c 30. Wind,

wound,

wound. 31. Wring, wrung,

wrung. The vacillation between the vowels a and u in the past indicative is undoubtedly owing to the vacillation between those vowels in the singular and plural in the Gothic and Anglo-Saxon.

slang, obs.

span, obs.

swang, obs.
wan, obs.

won.

A general analogy is observable even in English.
The verbs marked 6 have the same analogy as in the Anglo-Saxon.
The verbs marked c have an analogy peculiar to the English, which

с arises from employing long i, (that is, the diphthong ai,) for short i, and ou, (that is, the diphthong au,) for u, by the phonetic figure called vriddhi.

CORRESPONDING GERMAN VERBS.

a

a

a

a 1. Binde,
band,

gebunden.
2. Klimme,
3. Klinge,
klang,

geklungen.
6. Trinke, trank,

getrunken.
d 7. Fechte, focht,

gefochten.
8. Finde,
fand,

gefunden.
6 10. Beginne, begann,

begonnen.
c 12. Helfe,
half.

geholfen.
d 13. Schmelze, schmolz,

geschmolzen.
a 14. Ringe,
rang,

gerungen.
6 15. Rinne,
rann,

geronnen.
a 17. Singe,
sang,

gesungen.
a 18. Sinke,
sank,

gesunken.
a 19. Schlinge, schlang,

geschlungen.
6 21. Spinne,
spann,

gesponnen.
a 22. Springe, sprang,

gesprungen. a 24. Stinke, stank,

gestunken. 6 27. Schwimme, schwamm,

geschwommen. a 28. Schwinge, schwang,

geschwungen.
b 29. Winne,
wann,

gewonnen.
a 30. Winde,
wand,

gewunden. Heyse makes here three subdivisions, which we have marked, a, b,

We have marked a fourth subdivision d.

and c.

CORRESPONDING DUTCH VERBB,

1. Bind,
2. Klim,
3. Klink,
4. Delf,
6. Drink,
7. Vecht,
8. Vind.
10. Begin,
12. Help
13. Smelt,
17. Zing,
18. Zink,

bond, klom, klonk, dolf, dronk, vocht, vond, begon, hielp, smolt, zong, zonk,

gebonden. geklommen. geklonken. gedolven. gedronken. gevochten. gevonden. begonnen. geholpen. gesmolten. gezongen. gezonken.

21. Spin,
spon,

gesponnen.
22. Spring,
sprong,

gesprongen.
24. Stink,
stonk,

gestonken.
26. Zwel,
zwol,

gezwollen.
27. Zwem,
zwom,

geszwommen.
29. Win,
won,

gewonnen.
30. Wind,
wond,

gewonden.
31. Wring,
wrong,

gewrongen. These German and Dutch verbs are evidently more regular than the corresponding English.

CONJUGATION III.

This conjugation includes verbs which have, or rather originally had, i, or its modification e, in the present tense, a in the past tense, and i, or its modification e, in the participle.

The English verbs belonging to this conjugation are 1. bid, (to ask,) 2. eat, 3. get, 4. give, 5. knead, 6. lie, (to recline,) 7. queath, (in bequeath,) 8. see, 9. sit, 10. spit, 11. tread.

CORRESPONDING GOTHIC VERBB.

past indic.

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Pres. indic.

past partic.
1. Bida,

bad, pl. bedun, bidans.
2. Ita,
at, pl. etun,

itans.
3. Gita,

gat, pl. getun, gitans.
4. Giba,

gaf, pl. gebun, gibans.
6. Liga,
lag, pl. legun,

ligans.
7. Qitha,

qath, pl. qethun, qithans.
8. Saiwa,

saw, pl. sewun, saiwans.
9. Sita,
sat, pl. setun,

sitans. 11. Truda, The type or model of this conjugation in Gothic is nearly perfect. Saiwa is lengthened by guna in the present indicative and in the past participle. The vowel of truda is irregular.

CORRESPONDING ANGLO-SAXON VERBS. 6 1. Bidde,

bæd, bædon,

beden.
2. Ete,
æt, aton,

eten.
3. Ongite,

ongeat, ongeaton, ongiten. 4. Gife,

geaf, geafon, gifen. 5. Cnede,

cnæd, cnædon, cneden. 6 6. Licge,

læg, lægon,

legen.
7. Cwethe,

cwæth, cwadon, cweden.
8. Seo,
seah, sawon,

gesewen. b 9. Sitte,

sæt, sæton,

seten. 6 10. Späte, a 11. Trede,

træd, trædon,

treden.

a

a

a

a

a

a

These verbs in Anglo-Saxon follow a general analogy.

Those marked a have a single consonant, those marked b a double consonant for their characteristic.

a

ENGLISH VERBS.

a

a

a

a

a

seen.

trode,

6 1. Bid,

bade,

bidden.
2. Eat,
ate,

eaten.
3. Get,
gat,

gotten.
4. Give,
gave,

given.
5. Knead,
6 6. Lie,

lay,

lain. 7. Queath,

quoth, 8. See,

saw, b 9. Sit,

sat,

sitten. 6 10. Spit,

spat,

spitten. a 11. Tread,

trodden. The verbs marked a and b are distinguished as in Anglo-Saxon.

CORRESPONDING GERMAN VERBS. b 1. Bitte, bitt,

bat,

gebeten. 2. Esse, isst,

ass,

gegessen. 63. Gesse, gisst,

gass,

vergessen. 4. Gebe, giebt,

gab,

gegeben. 5. Knete,

gekneten. 6 6. Liege, liegt,

lag,

gelegen. 7. Köre, a 8. Sehe, sicht,

sah,

gesehen. 6 9. Sitze, sitzt,

sass,

gesessen. b 10. Spütze, obs. a 11. Trete, tritt,

trat,

getreten. The classes a and b do not correspond to the classes a and 6 in Anglo-Saxon and English.

The form of the third person is given in the present tense, as exhibiting the original vowel.

a

a

a

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b 1. Bid,

2. Eet,
3. Geet,
4. Geef,

5. Kneed, 6

6. Lig,

7. Kout, irr. 8. Zie,

a

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a

6 9. Zit,

zag,
zat,

gezien.
gezeten.

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